Healthy Eating Research

Building Evidence to
Prevent Childhood Obesity

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Displaying all 512 records in the database

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Research Summary

This executive summary is based on a full report of guidelines developed by an expert panel convened by Healthy Eating Research, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Home, Media, Physical activity, Snacks, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Report

Early life diet and feeding behaviors play an important role in establishing healthy food preferences and behaviors and are crucial for preventing childhood overweight and obesity. This report presents evidence-based … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Home, Media, Physical activity, Snacks, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Electronic health record (EHR) screening for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake may be a novel intervention for reducing SSB intake in children, and would result in longitudinal databases of individual-level consumption … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Increasing access to water and other healthy beverages and reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are viable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. In 2014, Georgia (GA) added beverage provisions to child-care … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Community setting, Head Start, Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Water

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Ensuring safe, accessible drinking water in schools is a national health priority. Students in schools that provide free water consume more water, potentially replacing sugar-containing beverages and promoting a healthy … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Vending machines, Water

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In 2014, California became the first state to authorize an out-of-school-time (OST) health promotion program. The Distinguished After School Health (DASH) program awards a 2-year certificate to OST programs that … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Improvements in the healthiness of packaged foods and beverages consumed by children and adolescents could have an impact on obesity through improved dietary intake patterns. Food manufacturers have new incentives … More

Keywords: Food formulation, Grocery store, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket

Date: February 2017

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Policies that restrict bottled water sales for environmental and sustainability purposes, and policies that increase access to bottled water to reduce sugary drink access, may be working at cross-purposes to … More

Keywords: Community setting, Legal, Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines, Water

Date: January 2017

Resource Type: Journal Article

As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks and desserts sold in schools as of the 2014-2015 school year were required to meet “Smart Snacks” nutritional guidelines. This study … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: January 2017

Resource Type: Report

Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs in multiple states have adopted several approaches to reduce barriers faced by schools in low-income communities in applying for and implementing a SRTS award. … More

Keywords: Community setting, Physical activity

Date: December 2016

Resource Type: Report

To understand how advocates, schools, the food industry, policymakers, and others have shaped discussions about school nutrition at the state and local level since the passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Media, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks

Date: December 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

Given the high levels of obesity in young children, number of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fruits and vegetables, Physical activity

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In 2011, Oregon passed a Farm to School (F2S) bill which provided significant funding for F2S programs and explicitly prioritized F2S education grants for schools serving lower-income students. The aims … More

Keywords: Farm, Fruits and vegetables, Rural, School meal programs, Urban

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Recent federal policies for revised school meals and Smart Snacks standards aimed for all children to have equitable access to health-promoting food environments. However, studies indicate that rural school, particularly … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food insecurity, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Rural, School meal programs, Snacks, Vending machines, Water

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Drinking water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is an important obesity prevention strategy. Although schools have taken great strides to improve drinking water access, the water crisis in Flint, Mich., and … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

To enhance access to healthier foods, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently proposed new stocking standards for stores eligible to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. It is … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, In-store marketing, Nutrition standards, Point-of-decision prompts, Rural, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The 2014 Farm Bill Authorization included $100 million to promote the purchase of fresh produce among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants through matching financial incentives for every SNAP dollar … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Supermarket, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Urban

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Reservation-based American Indian (AI) children suffer the highest rates of childhood obesity in the United States. This project will provide evidence to support the integration of childhood obesity prevention modules … More

Keywords: Community setting, Home, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Report

Out-of-School time (OST) programs are a promising setting for reducing child obesity risk by promoting healthy eating and providing opportunities for physical activity. The Healthy Out-of-School Time Coalition developed the … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Report

Complete Streets is a transportation and design concept in which streets are designed to be safe and accessible to all users and modes of transportation. This report summarizes findings from … More

Keywords: Community setting, Legal, Physical activity, Urban

Date: November 2016

Resource Type: Report

Complete Streets is a transportation and design concept in which streets are designed to be safe and accessible to all users and modes of transportation. From a public health perspective, … More

Keywords: Community setting, Legal, Physical activity, Urban

Date: October 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study examined the impact of front-of-package (FOP) labels and in-aisle signage identifying and explaining those labels on the healthfulness of foods selected by consumers. 153 parent/child pairs completed the … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Supermarket

Date: September 2016

Resource Type: Research Summary

The goal of this project was to examine the impact of Smart Snacks in School standards on fundraising practices in districts and schools in a sample of states that allow … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: September 2016

Resource Type: Report

The goal of this project was to examine the impact of Smart Snacks in School standards on fundraising practices in districts and schools in a sample of states that allow … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: September 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

California, New York, and the cities of San Francisco and Baltimore have introduced bills requiring health-related warning labels for sugar-sweetened beverages. This study measured the extent to which these warning … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: August 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2012, Massachusetts implemented a state law to establish nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold or provided in public schools, similar to the federal Smart Snacks in School … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: July 2016

Resource Type: Report

In the early 2000s, states began developing Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) as a structural approach to improve the quality of Early Care and Education (ECE) programs. QRIS are … More

Keywords: Head Start, Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: July 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study aimed to examine the efficacy and cost of two water delivery systems—water dispensers with cups and water coolers with cups—in increasing students’ lunchtime intake of water in lower-income … More

Keywords: Food service, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: July 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Starting in July 2016, San Francisco, Calif., will require prominent warning labels on most sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertisements (i.e., “WARNING: Drinking beverages with added sugar(s) contributes to obesity, diabetes, and … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food advertising, Media, Neighborhood, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: June 2016

Resource Type: Issue Brief

Excess weight gain occurs when more calories are consumed than expended over a long period of time. Accurate translation between changes in calories and changes in weight is important for … More

Date: June 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purpose of this project is to examine rural store owners’ perceptions about the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) proposed rule that updates the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Rural, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: June 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purpose of this project is to understand how advocates, the food industry, policymakers, and others have shaped discussions about school nutrition at the state and local level since the … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Legal, Media, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks

Date: June 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purpose of this project is to put safe drinking water in schools and child-care centers on par with other foods and beverages regulated by nutrition policies. The study will … More

Keywords: Legal, Water

Date: May 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

Given that early childhood is a formative developmental period, this study addresses important knowledge gaps by systematically reviewing the current literature on the relationship between physical activity and dietary patterns … More

Keywords: Academic achievement, Physical activity

Date: April 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

This review describes available measures of retail food store environments, including data collection methods, characteristics of measures, the dimensions most commonly captured across methods, and their strengths and limitations. Articles … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Healthy food financing, Rural, Supermarket, Urban

Date: April 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2012, Massachusetts implemented a competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snack standards. The NOURISH study (Nutrition Opportunities to Understand Reforms Involving Student … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: April 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2012, the updated U.S. Department of Agriculture school meals standards and a comprehensive competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snacks standards went … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: April 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) is a tool designed to evaluate practices, environmental attributes, and policies of early care and education (ECE) settings that influence children’s nutrition … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: March 2016

Resource Type: Issue Brief

This issue brief examines the evidence on how food, beverage, restaurant, and entertainment companies have used brand mascots and cartoon media characters to influence children’s diet and health. Brand mascots … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Fruits and vegetables, In-store marketing, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Snacks

Date: March 2016

Resource Type: Issue Brief

This brief reviews the evidence on food-related fundraising in schools and changes to the school food environment over the past decade, providing new data from the Bridging the Gap (BTG) … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: March 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purposes of this project are to: 1) understand the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the Minimum Stocking Levels and Marketing Strategies of Healthful Foods for Small Retail … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Healthy food financing, In-store marketing, Nutrition standards, Point-of-decision prompts, Rural, Spanish language, Urban

Date: March 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

This study aims to analyze supermarket retail practices and identify retailers’ motivators for and barriers to promoting healthy products. The research team will engage in semi-structured and qualitative interviews with … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Rural, Supermarket, Urban

Date: March 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

This project will determine whether restaurants have implemented healthier kids’ meal default policies and whether healthy defaults successfully reduce calories and improve the overall nutritional quality of fast-food meals consumed … More

Keywords: Fast food, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: March 2016

Resource Type: Issue Brief

The first 1,000 days, or the period from conception through age 2, is increasingly recognized as a critical period for the development of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences. This … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Home, Physical activity

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

The first 1,000 days – conception through age 2 – represents an important period for the development and prevention of childhood obesity. This study reviews existing evidence from interventions occurring … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Home, Physical activity

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study reviews existing evidence for modifiable childhood obesity risk factors that are present from conception to age 2. This period, described as the first 1,000 days, is a critical … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Home, Physical activity

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Report

The healthfulness of foods and beverages found in retail food stores differs widely across the United States, both by location of the store as well as by store type. Some … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Healthy food financing, In-store marketing, Nutrition standards, Point-of-decision prompts

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will develop and validate a photo-evidence method to measure effectiveness of water access in schools since the Healthy and Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 requires that potable water … More

Keywords: Food service, School meal programs, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

Research suggests that media campaigns targeting weight-related behaviors may inadvertently increase stigmatization of obese and overweight individuals and could backlash such that stigmatized individuals are less likely to engage in … More

Keywords: Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purpose of this project is to determine which state Safe Routes to School (SRTS) equity funding best practice processes and procedures best facilitate applications and awards in vulnerable communities. … More

Keywords: Community setting, Neighborhood, Physical activity

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will develop and evaluate ways to increase the impact of restaurant menu labeling among parents buying food for their children to address concerns that restaurant calorie labeling laws … More

Keywords: Fast food, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this study is to describe state child-care licensing laws relating to healthy eating and active play targeting children ages 0 to 2 in early care and education … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Legal, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will examine the linkages between tribal government food policies and tribal community health, with a focus on the impact of food policy on obesity prevention among children and … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Commodity foods, Food insecurity, Food systems, Legal, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

While overall prevalence of obesity improved in Massachusetts public schools between 2009 and 2014, prevalence remained unchanged for children living in poor, rural, and smaller communities. This project will identify … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Competitive foods, Food service, Geographic information systems, Physical activity, Rural, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Urban

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study aims to assess school digital marketing environments in a national sample of middle schools to identify opportunities and barriers to limit school-based marketing. This team previously developed a … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Rural, School wellness policies, Social media, Urban

Date: February 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The primary goal of this project is to refine and disseminate a valid, reliable quantitative assessment tool to measure the implementation of school wellness policies use to meet the Healthy … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Rural, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Urban, Vending machines

Date: January 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study assessed whether physical activity and screen-time policies in child-care centers were associated with physical activity and screen-time practices and preschool children’s physical activity. Data were collected from a … More

Keywords: Physical activity

Date: January 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

In April 2012, South Carolina enacted 13 nutrition standards for child-care centers serving lower-income children throughout the state. This study evaluated consistency with the standards before and after the policy … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: January 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

There is interest among school administrators, researchers, and policymakers for information to guide choices in selecting school-based nutrition interventions and efficiently allocating resources. This study will systematically evaluate the nutrition … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Vending machines

Date: January 2016

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently proposed updated nutrition standards for foods and beverages served in Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) participating child-care centers and homes. This … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: January 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

U.S. states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how warning labels influence parents and which labels are most effective. Over 2,000 … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: January 2016

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purpose of this project is to examine the use of state policy approaches to promote the implementation of the National AfterSchool Association Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (NAA HEPA) … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: January 2016

Resource Type: Journal Article

The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA), which took effect at the beginning of the 2012-2013 school year, updated the meal patterns and nutrition standards for the National School Lunch Program … More

Keywords: Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Urban

Date: December 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

The objective of this study was to describe where students from lower-income, ethnically diverse communities obtain the sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) they drink during school lunchtime and to examine whether students … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Restaurant, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Urban

Date: December 2015

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This will be the first systematic study to quantify on a national scale how the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package changes, which … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: December 2015

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This award will support a natural experiment that will (1) examine the change in free drinking water access in Food Service Areas in California public schools from before to after … More

Keywords: Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: December 2015

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this study is to evaluate different Front-Of-Package labeling systems to determine which may lead consumers to make healthier purchasing decisions and increase consumer comprehension of product healthfulness. … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Supermarket

Date: November 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2012, the New York City (NYC) Board of Health passed a regulation prohibiting the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) larger than 16 ounces in the city’s food service establishments. … More

Keywords: Food outlet, Legal, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: October 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Increasing access to farmers’ markets is a recommended approach to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. However, there are challenges to increasing access in underserved and lower-income neighborhoods, including short growing … More

Keywords: Community setting, Farmers' markets, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Spanish language

Date: October 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

National data show that preschool-age children in the U.S. do not eat the recommended amount of whole fruit and vegetables (FV). Child-care settings are an important place to influence children’s … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start

Date: October 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) supports food service in child-care centers that serve lower-income families and regulated the quality and quantity of food served in participating centers. … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards

Date: October 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Complete streets policies have existed since the early 1970s. These policies typically require that all road construction and reconstruction create streets that are safe and convenient for all users and … More

Keywords: Community setting, Legal, Physical activity, Urban

Date: September 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper provides a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on dietary quality, food consumption, and spending among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants as compared to income-eligible and higher-income … More

Keywords: Food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: September 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

In January 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) released a proposed rule detailing potential changes to the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) regulations, which are expected … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Nutrition standards

Date: August 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Shelf nutrition labels provide summary information on the overall nutritional quality of a food product. They provide cues to shoppers and may be effective in promoting healthy food choices at … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Supermarket

Date: August 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards. The NOURISH study examined … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines, Water

Date: August 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) “Smart Snacks in Schools” rule, which updated nutrition standards for competitive foods sold in schools, went into effect July 1, 2014. Under this … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Snacks

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

There is substantial evidence that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with weight gain in both children and adults. As a result, Public Service Announcements (PSAs) have been produced … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Physical activity (PA) at a young age is an important health behavior to prevent childhood obesity and establish healthy PA habits. Because the majority of preschool-age children attend child-care centers, … More

Keywords: Physical activity, Urban

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the nation’s largest food assistance program, serving approximately 47 million people, half of whom are children. There are currently no nutrition standards accompanying … More

Keywords: Legal, Nutrition standards, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The confluence of Big Data analytics and digital media is rapidly transforming the retail and grocery marketplace, fundamentally altering how food companies engage with consumers and how families make nutrition … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Food outlet, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Media, Social media, Supermarket

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Despite substantial literature on how to improve the food environment for children, there has been little work examining how price promotions, nutrient-related claims, and their interactions might be associated with … More

Keywords: Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, In-store marketing

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

This project will use legal and policy analysis to understand how the presence of pharmacies in food retail settings could be used to improve the availability and marketing of healthy … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Legal, Supermarket

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

This study will address the research gap in understanding the strengths and weaknesses of child-care regulation across jurisdictions regarding nutrition, active play, and screen time. Specific aims of the project … More

Keywords: Legal, Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: July 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Currently there is much interest in incentivizing the purchase of healthier food items among lower-income populations. The purpose of this project is to pilot test a double-dollar incentive program traditionally … More

Keywords: Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Point-of-decision prompts, Rural, Supermarket, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: June 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Drinking water is promoted to improve beverage nutrition and reduce the prevalence of obesity. The aims of this study were to identify how water was provided to children in child-care … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Head Start, Water

Date: June 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Drawing from a larger study on restaurant nutrition, this cross-sectional study reports on the sodium density of 30,073 menu items from 237 unique U.S. chain restaurant brands in 2010. Sodium … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Restaurant

Date: June 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

In the 1990s, states began developing Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) as a structural approach to improve the quality of early care and education (ECE) programs. Nemours’ experience implementing … More

Keywords: Head Start, Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: June 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Mass media campaigns are a commonly used and often effective public health strategy. However, it is unknown how health messages about sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), widely accepted and advertised products, will … More

Keywords: Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: June 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

In Mississippi, about one-third of children under six years old are cared for in Family Child Care Homes (FCCHs). The purposes of this study are to: 1) assess the nutrition … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Community setting, Physical activity, Rural, Urban

Date: May 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

The Michigan Healthy School Action Tools (HSAT) is an online self-assessment and action planning process for schools seeking to improve their health policies and practices. This study evaluated whether undertaking … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: May 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

In response to growing concern about children’s exposure to unhealthy food advertising, the food industry adopted a program of self-regulation – the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) – … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Media, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation

Date: May 2015

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

The American Journal of Preventive Medicine published a special theme issue highlighting discussions and recommendations from the July 2013 Built Environment Assessment Training (BEAT) Institute meeting. The BEAT Institute was … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Food systems, Geographic information systems, Home, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Social media

Date: April 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Children and adolescents see between 4,500 and 6,000 food ads on TV each year, the majority of which are for products high in sugar and fat and low in essential … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Media, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation

Date: April 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Attention to nutrition information, including reading food labels, can be an effective way to improve dietary behaviors. Research has identified consumer characteristics associated with viewing Nutrition Facts labels; however, little … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Supermarket

Date: April 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study explored diverse stakeholders’ accountability expectations and actions for industry policies and practices that used cartoon brand mascots and media characters to market foods and beverages to American children. … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Media, Self-regulation

Date: March 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

This project builds upon previous work conducted to develop, disseminate, and promote adoption and implementation of the National AfterSchool Association (NAA) Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) standards in out-of-school-time … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: March 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study investigated how public attitudes toward the role of parents in the obesity epidemic might influence support for various obesity reduction strategies. Researchers analyzed data from two national public … More

Date: March 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

There is increasing concern that food advertising shapes the way children eat and contributes to childhood obesity. The fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in industry self-regulation, pledging … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation

Date: February 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. In September … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Healthy food financing, Neighborhood, Snacks, Supermarket, Taxes, Urban

Date: February 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study aimed to evaluate the population-level impact of substituting low-fat and skim milk for whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]) on energy, macronutrient and nutrient … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: February 2015

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purpose of this project is to understand the influence of health warning labels displayed on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on consumer perceptions. This study was commissioned in response to California’s … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: February 2015

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

The Food Market Measures Toolkit compiles, categorizes, and describes healthy food retail measures to assist researchers and public health practitioners in selecting the appropriate measurement tool for their work. While … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Grocery store, Rural, Urban

Date: February 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the influence of cartoon brand mascots and media characters on diet-related cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes for children ages 2 to 11 through a review of 11 … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Fruits and vegetables, In-store marketing, Media, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Deceptive health claims on foods and beverages are prohibited by law, and may be addressed through litigation or government regulatory efforts. This article analyzes legal actions against potentially deceptive health … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Legal

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2013, the U.S. Department of Agriculture issued an interim final rule containing nationwide standards for all competitive foods and beverages (CF&Bs). This review examines the influence of state laws … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

Over the past decade, communities have turned to zoning and land-use policies to restrict fast-food restaurants, and have done so for different reasons and with varied success. Investigators analyzed news … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fast food, Legal, Media, Restaurant, Zoning

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2009, King County, Wash., implemented a menu-labeling regulation that requires chain restaurants to provide calorie, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and sodium information. This study examines population-level changes in menu-labeling awareness … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Infographic

The marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children and youth contributes to poor diet quality, high calorie intake, and excess weight gain. This infographic portrays the reach and impact … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, In-store marketing, Media, Point-of-decision prompts, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Issue Brief

The marketing of unhealthy foods to children and youth is a major public health concern. Children in the United States grow up surrounded by food and beverage marketing, which primarily … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, In-store marketing, Media, Point-of-decision prompts, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Report

The marketing of unhealthy foods to children and youth is a major public health concern. Children in the United States grow up surrounded by food and beverage marketing, which primarily … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, In-store marketing, Media, Point-of-decision prompts, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: January 2015

Resource Type: Journal Article

This review summarizes growing evidence of disparities in the social and physical environments of U.S. children and adolescents that likely contribute to increased risk for obesity and poor nutrition. The … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Competitive foods, Food advertising, Food outlet, Food systems, Media, Neighborhood, Rural, School meal programs, Urban

Date: December 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been identified as a key policy lever to reduce consumption of sugary drinks and to fund nutrition and physical activity programs. This paper analyzes news … More

Keywords: Community setting, Media, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: October 2014

Resource Type: Report

In 2013, Telluride, Colo., proposed a tax on sugary drinks that would require local business owners to pay the city one cent per ounce of sugar-sweetened beverages sold. The proposed … More

Keywords: Community setting, Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: October 2014

Resource Type: Infographic

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are an important contributor to adolescent obesity. One promising environmental strategy to reduce consumption of SSBs is to provide consumers with easily understandable caloric information. This infographic … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Water

Date: October 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the ways in which adolescents altered the type and size of their purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in response to an intervention in six corner stores located … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Water

Date: September 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study examines the effect of inoculation as a strategy in competitive framing in the context of public opinion about taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Inoculation is a theory of … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: September 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Agriculture began requiring that child-care sites participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) make drinking water available throughout the day and … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Head Start, Home, Nutrition standards, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: September 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines whether school lunch entrees made in a district from basic or raw U.S. Department of Agriculture Foods ingredients can be healthier and/or less expensive to prepare than … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Food formulation, Food service, School meal programs

Date: August 2014

Resource Type: Report

Consumption of several new categories of ‘fortified’ sugary beverages has increased significantly in recent years. Energy drinks, sports drinks, fruit drinks, flavored waters, and sweetened teas and coffees are heavily … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Food formulation, Front-of-package labeling, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: August 2014

Resource Type: Issue Brief

Nearly $2 billion is spent yearly by U.S. food and beverage companies to market products to children, with the majority of expenditures promoting less healthful foods and drinks. For restaurants, … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Food formulation, In-store marketing, Media, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, Self-regulation

Date: July 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

In December 2011, San Francisco enacted the first citywide ordinance–the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance– prohibiting restaurants in the city from giving away free toys or other incentives with children’s meals … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Nutrition standards, Restaurant

Date: July 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines how the obesity status of different children within the same family is related to a parent or sibling’s obesity. Analyzing results of a 2011 national survey of … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fast food, Media, Physical activity

Date: July 2014

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

The California City Soda Tax Calculator is an online tool that generates estimates of how much revenue a sugar-sweetened beverage tax would raise for incorporated California cities with populations over … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: June 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the differential effects that taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by calories and by ounce have on beverage demand. Based on sales data from supermarkets across four New York … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: June 2014

Resource Type: Report

The advertising of foods and beverages with low nutritional value has been identified as a contributor to rising obesity rates among children. Food and beverage manufacturers often use health claims … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Legal

Date: June 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper models the potential impact of two proposed policy changes to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): a ban on using SNAP dollars to buy sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); and … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fruits and vegetables, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: May 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines free drinking water access in California public schools. Researchers conducted cross-sectional interviews with administrators from 240 California schools from May to November 2011 to examine the proportion … More

Keywords: Food service, Rural, School wellness policies, Urban, Water

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

Strategic messaging is used to emphasize certain aspects of issues in policy debates, shaping public views and policy-making processes. This paper explores the use of strategic messaging by proponents of … More

Keywords: Community setting, Media, Social media, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

Strategies to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a key component of public health promotion and obesity prevention, yet the introduction of many of these policies has been met … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines how young children interpret depictions of healthy foods (milk and apples) in television advertisements by McDonalds’s and Burger King aired from July 1, 2010 through June 30, … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Report

The Water Works implementation guide can help interested individuals work with schools and community partners to increase access to free, high-quality drinking water sources in their schools. It provides a … More

Keywords: Food service, Nutrition standards, School wellness policies, Water

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

Financing programs to incentivize healthy food retail development in communities classified as “underserved” are taking place at the local, state, and national levels. Implementing these policies requires a clear definition … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Grocery store, Healthy food financing, Neighborhood, Rural, Supermarket, Urban

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

Many front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labeling systems have been developed by food retailers and manufactures to help consumers identify more healthful options at the point of purchase. This paper examines how … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, In-store marketing, Nutrition standards, Point-of-decision prompts

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper presents the experiences and lessons learned from small food store interventions in four U.S. cities – Baltimore, Md.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Burlington, N.C.; and Philadelphia, Pa. Experiences from these … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Spanish language

Date: March 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the impact of a rewards-based incentive program on fruits and vegetable purchases in a supermarket located in a predominately minority community in Philadelphia, Pa. Researchers conducted a … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Supermarket, Urban

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Report

In 2012, the California cities Richmond and El Monte asked voters to consider a penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). The measures appeared on the ballot alongside companion advisory policies … More

Keywords: Community setting, Media, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

In the past few years, numerous state and local legislators have proposed taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) as a means of changing individuals’ behavior in order to reduce obesity and … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Issue Brief

Sugary drinks add large amounts of calories to the diet and are linked with obesity. Many state legislatures have tried to impose new taxes on sugary drinks, but the beverage … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Little empirical research has been done to support policies that increase access to free drinking water as part of comprehensive strategies to reduce consumption of sugary beverages and prevent childhood … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Rural, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Vending machines, Water

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) was developed in 2002 to help child-care providers improve their food and physical activity environments. Evaluations of NAP SACC … More

Keywords: Rural

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Little is known about school-based digital marketing and how to help schools comply with model policies given new competitive food standards. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Food advertising, Legal, Media, Nutrition standards, School wellness policies, Vending machines

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Some public health advocates and policymakers are proposing restrictions on the types of foods eligible for purchase with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, such as sugary drinks and food … More

Keywords: Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the associations between the food and physical activity environment in schools and body mass index (BMI) for lower-income boys and girls when they were in the 8th … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Physical activity, School meal programs

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines how three video messages featured in the Strong4Life campaign affected public attitudes about: 1) the problem of obesity and its consequences; 2) who in society is responsible … More

Keywords: Media

Date: January 2014

Resource Type: Working Paper

This paper analyzes the role of prices in determining food purchases and nutrition using a detailed transaction-level observation for a large, nationally-representative sample of U.S. consumers over the years 2002-2007. … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Home, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Taxes

Date: January 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the effects of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fast food, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Restaurant, Taxes

Date: January 2014

Resource Type: Issue Brief

A sedentary lifestyle lacking physical activity, and consumption of calorie-dense foods and sugary drinks, have long been associated with obesity. But studies indicate that the inflation-adjusted cost of food, which … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fast food, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Restaurant, Taxes

Date: December 2013

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Taxes on sugary drinks have been identified as a policy tool that could reduce consumption of these beverages or raise funds to address associated health expenses. To date, tax proposals … More

Keywords: Community setting, Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: December 2013

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The primary aim of this project is to revise and update the content and format of the WellSAT (Wellness School Assessment Tool, www.wellsat.org), an online quantitative measure for evaluating the … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: December 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses the results of the School Nutrition Advances Kids (SNAK) project which examined the effectiveness of various nutrition interventions on the diets of lower-income middle school students in … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: December 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will take advantage of a unique natural experiment to evaluate the ways in which the home food environment modifies the effects of a new full-service supermarket on children’s … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Neighborhood, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Urban

Date: November 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the effects of messages describing consequences of childhood obesity on Americans’ attitudes about obesity prevention policy and compares these attitudes by political ideology (conservative, moderate, and liberal). … More

Keywords: Media

Date: November 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article assesses the nutritional quality of foods that are advertised with familiar children’s characters. It also examines how frequently familiar characters are paired with health messages in these advertisement. … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Fruits and vegetables, Media, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: November 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will evaluate nutrition and physical activity practices and policies of licensed child-care centers that enroll 3- to 5-year-old children in the three Southern states with the highest childhood … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Head Start, Physical activity, Rural, Urban

Date: November 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

Healthy food financing initiatives are a relatively new approach to improve access to healthy foods, enabling healthy food retailers to locate or renovate food outlets in underserved communities through one-time … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Grocery store, Healthy food financing, Supermarket

Date: October 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

To characterize retail food environments and identify areas with limited retail access, researchers, government programs, and community advocates have primarily used secondary retail food outlet data sources. This systematic review … More

Keywords: Corner store, Farmers' markets, Fast food, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Restaurant, Rural, Supermarket, Urban

Date: October 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

Foods purchased from prepared food sources (ready-to-eat foods that can be eaten outside the home or brought back or delivered to the home to eat) are now a major part … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Rural, Urban

Date: October 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was modified to align the WIC food packages with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. As part … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Supermarket, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Establishing county-level food and beverage standards is a promising strategy for improving nutrition environments. This study will investigate the impact of nutrition standards policies on county facilities that serve foods … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Nutrition standards, Vending machines

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines trends in the nutritional quality of emergency foods in six California food banks from 2007 to 2010. Over the four-year study period, researchers found a substantial increase … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Farm, Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses the process a nonprofit policy advocacy organization (California Food Policy Advocates) and an academic research center (Center for Weight and Health at University of California, Berkeley) went … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Taxes

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper highlights the results of a national online survey of 137 U.S. food banks and qualitative interviews with senior staff at six California food banks in 2011 regarding the … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Mobile food vending, Neighborhood, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines changes in the energy and sodium content of main entrées among a study population of 213 U.S. chain restaurant brands. Data were collected in spring 2010–when the … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Restaurant

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines changes in the sodium content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food restaurants in the U.S. between 1997-1998 and 2009-2010. Researchers found that the … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Restaurant

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The U.S. Department of Agriculture recently proposed new standards for snack (competitive) foods in schools, similar to the Competitive Foods Guidelines developed by the Alliance for a Healthier Generation. This … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Over 10 million children participate in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Recent proposed policy changes have suggested banning or taxing the use of SNAP benefits for sugar-sweetened beverage … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Taxes

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

The large increases in the prevalence of cigarette smoking and obesity in the 20th century are associated with changes in tobacco and food products, as well as social and physical … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Food formulation, Food outlet, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: August 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article compares quick-service restaurant (QSR) television advertisements for children’s meals with adult advertisements from the same company to assess whether companies were complying with their self-regulatory pledges. Researchers coded … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Food outlet, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation

Date: August 2013

Resource Type: Infographic

Fast-food companies emphasize toy giveaways and movie tie-ins when marketing to kids on television, which suggests the industry is not abiding by its own pledges regarding child-directed marketing. Learn more … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Food outlet, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation

Date: August 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines the amount and type of food and beverage product packaging-related marketing observed in retail food stores where mothers of young children in the cities of Champaign and … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food advertising, Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Media, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: August 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 included a mandate to school districts participating in the federal school meal program to establish and implement policies addressing wellness, including … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food advertising, Fruits and vegetables, Rural, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Vending machines

Date: July 2013

Resource Type: Report

State consumer protection laws have yet to fully catch up with advances in digital marketing. This report focuses on how existing state consumer protection law can be used to limit … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, In-store marketing, Legal, Media, Point-of-decision prompts, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: July 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper predicts the effects of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes on demand for 23 categories of packaged foods and beverages and the associated changes in calories, fat, and sodium intake … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: July 2013

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Small retail food stores are ubiquitous in lower-income, urban settings, and are a major food source among lower-income racial and ethnic minority children and adolescents. Little is known about the … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Snacks, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: July 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

Diet beverages, or artificially-sweetened beverages (ASBs), became popular over the last few decades, largely due to successful marketing campaigns implying that consumption of these beverages would assist in weight control … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: June 2013

Resource Type: Issue Brief

New grocery stores, corner stores, farmers’ markets, and other food retailers can generate a significant economic stimulus for communities–especially communities of color and lower-income communities. This paper examines the connection … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Farmers' markets, Food outlet, Grocery store, Healthy food financing, Rural, Supermarket, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Taxes, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Zoning

Date: June 2013

Resource Type: Issue Brief

More and more chain restaurants and cafeterias are labeling menus to provide consumers with calorie and other information about standard menu items. This trend is driven by the adoption of … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: June 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines how the news media frames the public debates about sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes. Researchers assessed how frequently pro- and anti-tax arguments appeared in national news media and … More

Keywords: Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: June 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article evaluates the impact of a menu labeling regulation in King County, Wash., on calories purchased and awareness and use of labels six and 18 months after implementation. Like … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: June 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article assesses trends in the nutritional quality of menu offerings in eight U.S. fast-food restaurant chains from 1997/1998 to 2009/2010. Researchers calculated Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005 scores for each … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Restaurant

Date: June 2013

Resource Type: Report

New grocery stores, corner stores, farmers’ markets, and other food retailers can generate a significant economic stimulus for communities–especially communities of color and lower-income communities. This paper examines the connection … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Farmers' markets, Food outlet, Grocery store, Healthy food financing, Rural, Supermarket, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Taxes, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Zoning

Date: June 2013

Resource Type: Research Review

More and more chain restaurants and cafeterias are labeling menus to provide consumers with calorie and other information about standard menu items. This trend is driven by the adoption of … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: May 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper reports the design and baseline results of a rewards-based incentive program–the Frequent Buyer Rewards Study–in a large full-service supermarket located in a predominately minority community in Philadelphia, Penn. … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Supermarket, Urban

Date: May 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper analyzes food and beverage advertising on Spanish-language children’s television compared with advertising found on English-language programs. Researchers found that although the amount of food advertising was lower on … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: May 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study analyzed news media coverage of trans fat in the U.S. food supply in the two largest circulation U.S. newspapers and three major television networks from 1998 to 2008. … More

Keywords: Media

Date: May 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines disparities in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among U.S. schoolchildren by race/ethnicity and obesity status using national data from the third School Nutrition … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Home, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: May 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location (urban, town, or rural) in 26 schools in New Hampshire and … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food advertising, Rural, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Vending machines, Water

Date: April 2013

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

There is growing interest across the country in taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). As policy-makers and advocates consider whether to pursue such a tax, accurate estimates of tax revenues that could … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: April 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

Early care and education (ECE) programs are important settings for obesity prevention, but limited research provides insufficient evidence upon which to base policy decisions, practice guidelines, or mobilized efforts to … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food service, Home, Media, Physical activity

Date: April 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

Given the growing contributions of snacks to dietary intake and the need for effective strategies to reduce and prevent obesity, it is important to consider whether snacking behaviors are associated … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Neighborhood, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The purpose of this project is to understand public debates regarding proposed local soda taxes based on experiences during 2012 in the cities of Richmond and El Monte, California, so … More

Keywords: Community setting, Media, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Issue Brief

This legal issue brief focuses on “viral” or “word-of-mouth” marketing. Viral marketing campaigns are designed to mask their commercial origin, which raises multiple issues related to protecting consumers, especially young … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Legal, Media, Social media

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The food industry often uses health claims to promote its products to consumers, including parents seeking nutritious options for their children. Parents and children in low-income and racial/ethnic minority households … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Legal

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Price incentives on healthy foods, price disincentives on unhealthy foods, and greater access to healthier foods have received much attention from policy-makers and researchers as potentially effective obesity policies. The … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Taxes

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this project is to examine how varied changes to the school food environment affect children’s food choices and dietary intake, lunchroom waste, and overall financial costs. The … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, School meal programs, Snacks, Spanish language

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Little is known about how calorie menu labeling in restaurants is likely to affect children and adolescents. Thus, the specific aims of this study are to: 1) determine the extent … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

Studies suggest that participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)—the largest federal nutrition assistance program in the U.S.—may be associated with suboptimal dietary patterns among adults, but these associations … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examined the availability and accessibility of water in child-care centers and evaluated whether the centers were in compliance with current federal, state, and accreditation rules regarding water availability … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Water

Date: March 2013

Resource Type: Report

Beverage choices contribute significantly to dietary and caloric intake in the United States. Choosing healthy beverages and other lower-calorie options, instead of high-calorie, sugar-sweetened beverages, has great potential to help … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: February 2013

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of calorie labeling on consumer food choices. In contrast, very little is known about whether and how restaurant menu … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Restaurant

Date: February 2013

Resource Type: Issue Brief

The marketing of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods and beverages is linked to overweight and obesity in the United States. American youths are still exposed to a disproportionate amount of marketing … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Food formulation, Legal, Media, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: February 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

Given the obesity epidemic in the United States, taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fast food, Fruits and vegetables, Restaurant, School meal programs, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Taxes, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: February 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study used national data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-III) to conduct simulation analyses to estimate changes in mean calories consumed from added sugars by switching … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Home, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: February 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper assessed public opinion about arguments commonly used in debates over taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and found greater public agreement with anti- than pro-tax arguments. A majority of … More

Keywords: Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: February 2013

Resource Type: Research Review

The marketing of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods and beverages is linked to overweight and obesity in the United States. American youths are still exposed to a disproportionate amount of marketing … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Food formulation, Legal, Media, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: January 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

More than one-quarter of all Hispanic households in the U.S. are food insecure. Hispanic families in the U.S. comprise 30 percent of households with food insecurity at the child level. … More

Keywords: Food insecurity, Home, Rural, Spanish language

Date: January 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines spatial access to retail food stores, including traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) stores, as well … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Grocery store, Home, Neighborhood, Rural, School meal programs, Spanish language, Supermarket

Date: January 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will evaluate an intervention delivered by community partners, the “Veggie Van” mobile market, a van service that sells weekly boxes of reduced-cost, fresh, North Carolina-grown fruits and vegetables … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Mobile food vending

Date: January 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The project seeks to address a measurement gap in food access research by assessing various factors in corner stores within the context of the larger food environment related to childhood … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Rural, Urban

Date: January 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses availability of nutrition information and nutritional content of menu items in the largest chain restaurants in the United States. Researchers examined the nutritional content of 30,923 menu … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: January 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study engaged experts from diverse sectors to explore their opinions concerning the existing challenges to eating nutritiously in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) program and propose strategies for … More

Keywords: Corner store, Farmers' markets, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: January 2013

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper estimates the changes in energy, fat, and sodium purchases resulting from a tax that increases sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) prices by 20 percent as well as the effect of … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: December 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In accordance with a Massachusetts school nutrition bill (105 CMR 225.000) passed in 2010, the Massachusetts Departments of Public Health and Elementary and Secondary Education have developed new nutrition standards … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food formulation, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines, Water

Date: December 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Children are increasingly exposed to fast-food advertising and are increasingly consuming food from fast-food sources. Under the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI), fast-food companies continue to promote fast … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Media, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, Self-regulation

Date: December 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The quality and impact of school meal programs could be improved by menu labeling policies, but there is little research about nutrition labeling in schools. This project will utilize existing … More

Keywords: Food service, Point-of-decision prompts, School meal programs, Urban

Date: December 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Zoning policies are a promising solution to improve the food environment in vulnerable communities, in part because they encompass a range of land use regulations that can be tailored to … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fast food, Food advertising, Legal, Media, Restaurant, Zoning

Date: December 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper describes the development of voluntary healthy eating and physical activity quality standards (HEPAQS) for out-of-school time programs. The final HEPAQS were developed using a national, mixed-methods needs assessment, … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: December 2012

Resource Type: Working Paper

This paper discusses the results of the first study to analyze the effects of fast-food advertising on body composition among youths as measured by percentage body fat (PBF). The study … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fast food, Food advertising, Media, Restaurant

Date: November 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Although food insecurity and obesity have historically been viewed as separate public health issues, there is growing interest in the seemingly contradictory association between these two issues. In this paper, … More

Keywords: Community setting, Farmers' markets, Food advertising, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Food systems, Head Start, Home, In-store marketing, School meal programs, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: November 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses results of a study that examined whether restaurant environments changed as a result of a newly implemented restaurant nutrition-labeling regulation in King County, Wash., compared over a … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: November 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study compared the results of direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities in North Carolina, without a list guiding the field … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Rural

Date: November 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses a study that examined changes in the energy content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food restaurants in the U.S. between 1997-1998 and 2009-2010. … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: November 2012

Resource Type: Report

This report evaluates current local comprehensive and sustainability plans across the United States and their impact on local policies, regulations, and standards to reduce food access disparities and improve community-based … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Food systems, Legal, Zoning

Date: October 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Research has established that children’s exposure to television ads for non-nutritious food products is a significant risk factor contributing to childhood obesity. The aim of this project is to continue … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Fruits and vegetables, Media, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: October 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Federal and California state legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water where school lunches are served, yet many schools in California do not provide free water in school food … More

Keywords: Food service, School meal programs, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: October 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article describes the results of a study that examined changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) availability and selection at Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Supermarket, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: October 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article describes two studies on how attractive naming can be implemented in schools to encourage healthier eating in a cost-effective and scalable way. In Study 1, researchers found that … More

Keywords: Food service, Fruits and vegetables

Date: September 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Product assortment–the presence and variety of foods and beverages–is a key in-store marketing strategy to influence consumer choice.  This paper examines product assortment within conveniences stores in rural Texas-border colonias. … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fruits and vegetables, In-store marketing, Neighborhood, Rural, Snacks, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: September 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2009, the U.S. Department of Agriculture implemented changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package. This paper explores the perceptions of owners … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Nutrition standards, Spanish language, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: September 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Over the past few decades, behavioral economics, social psychology, and neuroscience research has suggested that people are often irrational and their choices are frequently the consequence of automatic, hard-wired, instinctual … More

Keywords: Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Supermarket

Date: September 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Implementation of the 2009 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package has implications for WIC-authorized store managers/owners who had to modify their stock to meet … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Nutrition standards, Spanish language, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: September 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper describes how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases: 1) starting the conversation; 2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; 3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Legal, Rural

Date: August 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

The U.S. food and beverage industry recently released a new front-of-package nutrition labeling system called “Facts Up Front” that will be used on thousands of food products. This article discusses … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation

Date: August 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Using a large representative sample of 56 California high schools, this study examined the influence of comprehensive food and beverage legislation on both school meal participation and revenue. Researchers found … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: August 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study examined the energy, saturated fat, and sodium content of entrées at national chain restaurants subject to menu labeling regulations in King County, Washington, at six and 18 months … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: July 2012

Resource Type: Issue Brief

Competitive foods are foods and beverages that compete with school meal programs. They are sold through vending machines, a la carte cafeteria lines, school stores and other venues. Given that … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: July 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses the results of a study that examined the provision of water and student water consumption in food service areas (FSA) in a random sample of San Francisco, … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Legal, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines, Water

Date: July 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper describes the results of the first national study to describe Head Start program practices in three areas: assessing body mass index (BMI), addressing food insecurity, and determining children’s … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food insecurity, Head Start, Home

Date: July 2012

Resource Type: Research Review

Competitive foods are foods and beverages that compete with school meal programs. They are sold through vending machines, a la carte cafeteria lines, school stores and other venues. Given that … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: June 2012

Resource Type: Issue Brief

Children’s and adolescents’ consumption of sports drinks is increasing. Given the already elevated levels of added sugar in the American diet and its detrimental impact on health, the increased consumption … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Food advertising, Food formulation, Media, Physical activity, Social media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: June 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study examined 151 written district school wellness policies in Connecticut and found that significant improvement in school-level implementation of policies was reported after written policies were adopted. Stronger and … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School wellness policies

Date: June 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses the results of a study that tested whether the associations between franchised fast-food restaurants or convenience store density near schools and childhood overweight varied by race/ethnicity, sex, … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Neighborhood

Date: June 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses the results of a study that compared foods and beverages served to 2- to 5-year-olds by type of child-care site and participation in the federally-funded Child and … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: June 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article provides an overview of the growing digital media and marketing landscape, focusing on four developments that are shaping marketing strategies and techniques: 1) the growth of interactive games … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Snacks, Social media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: June 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines prominent cases from corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts by soda industry leaders PepsiCo and Coca-Cola and compares them with tobacco industry CSR campaigns. Researchers found that major … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: June 2012

Resource Type: Research Review

Children’s and adolescents’ consumption of sports drinks is increasing. Given the already elevated levels of added sugar in the American diet and its detrimental impact on health, the increased consumption … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Food advertising, Food formulation, Media, Physical activity, Snacks, Social media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: May 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

One hundred percent fruit juice makes up a substantial part of the total fruit intakes of children and is a major contributor to their total nutrient intake. However, fruit juices … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards

Date: May 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

In-store food marketing can influence food purchasing behaviors, but much remains to be learned about what food marketing practices in grocery stores can help address the growing burden of obesity. … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Supermarket

Date: May 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study explored the extent to which schoolchildren would purchase pre-cut and bagged fruits and vegetables from a mobile fruit vendor (frutero). During 14 days in fall 2008, a vendor … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Mobile food vending, Neighborhood, Snacks, Urban

Date: May 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses the results of a study which examined the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 240 African American adolescents … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Home

Date: May 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines the impact of the 2009 food package changes for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the availability of healthful foods in … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Supermarket, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: May 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses the results of a study which analyzed the images of overweight and obese individuals in Time and Newsweek magazine coverage over a 25-year period (1984-2009), comparing the … More

Keywords: Media

Date: May 2012

Resource Type: Report

Promoting water intake has been proposed in order to displace the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, and new federal and California laws now require water availability in child-care settings. However, some … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: April 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses the results of a qualitative study which explored childhood obesity and healthy eating concepts among out-of-school time program administrators. Researchers found that while program administrators were concerned … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: April 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study evaluated the effects of two meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1) serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items … More

Keywords: Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Urban

Date: March 2012

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

This website provides a compilation of articles that include community-level measures of the food environment, as well as some of the instruments themselves. The food environment is defined to include … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Farmers' markets, Fast food, Food outlet, Grocery store, Restaurant, Supermarket

Date: March 2012

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

This interactive online registry is a database of diet and physical activity measures relevant to childhood obesity research. Types of measures in this registry are questionnaires, instruments, diaries, logs, electronic … More

Date: March 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

In 2007, Maine became the first state to pass legislation limiting the marketing of foods of minimal nutritional value (FMNV) in public schools. This article describes compliance with this legislation … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food advertising, Media, Nutrition standards, Rural, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Vending machines, Water

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article assess the relationship between children’s experience of food insecurity and nutrient intake from food and beverages among Mexican-origin children (ages 6-11 years) who resided in Texas border colonias. … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food insecurity, Home, Spanish language

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

This web tool provides a catalogue of existing surveillance systems that contain data relevant to childhood obesity research. It includes local, state, and national systems that provide data at multiple … More

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

With the link between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and childhood obesity well established, effective strategies to reduce consumption of these beverages among children are needed. The objective of this research is … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Food formulation, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will examine the impact of the opening of a new grocery store in a lower-income, multi-ethnic neighborhood in San Francisco. This research team has already collected two sets … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Urban

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are now developing media campaigns to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, which has been found to play a significant … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Food taxes are being proposed or implemented in many countries. While the purpose of developing food taxes is likely a potential way to raise money for national treasuries, governments have … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

The childhood obesity epidemic has prompted calls for government restrictions on child-targeted advertisements for high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods. Food and entertainment industry groups have countered that the First Amendment prohibits such … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Legal, Media, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

In recent years, public health practitioners have aimed to improve the food environment and purchasing patterns in small food stores, yet studies summarizing these interventions and their effectiveness are lacking. … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Media, Rural, Urban

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Improving the nutritional quality of foods served in child care may come at a higher cost according to a study of foods served in child-care homes participating in the Child … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Snacks

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper estimates the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. The researchers found that junk … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Fast food, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Physical activity, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the effect of an intervention to provide caloric information about sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the number of SSBs purchased by Black adolescents. The intervention randomly assigned urban … More

Keywords: Corner store, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: January 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Santa Clara County, California was the first U.S. jurisdiction to implement an ordinance that prohibits the distribution of toys and other incentives to children with meals, foods, or beverages that … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Nutrition standards, Restaurant

Date: January 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses a cross-sectional study evaluating the associations between child-care center policies about staff eating practices and caregivers’ dietary behaviors during mealtime interactions with children. Researchers observed no substantial … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: December 2011

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Goals of promoting water in child care include enabling children at an early age to become accustomed to drinking water as the beverage of choice for quenching thirst, and helping … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: December 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the association between the rural food environment and rural lower-income children’s food consumption and obesity rates in six rural towns in Maine. Researchers found few significant relationships … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Rural

Date: December 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses the development and psychometric properties (range, internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity) of an instrument–the Wellness Child Care Assessment Tool–to quantitatively evaluate the comprehensiveness and strength … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: November 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Some legal scholars suggest that kids’ meal advertising constitutes false advertising because of its emphasis on toy premiums and movie tie-ins rather than food. Yet no one has assessed how … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Food outlet, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation

Date: November 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The preschool period is a critical time for growth and development, and healthy eating at this age can help prevent later obesity. Despite the large number of children attending center-based … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: November 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

During the 2009-10 school year, the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) experimented with the removal of a la carte foods in … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, School meal programs, Snacks

Date: November 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Providing easily understandable caloric information may be a low-cost strategy for lowering overall caloric intake among groups at high risk for obesity, particularly Black and Hispanic adolescents ages 12 to … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: October 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the assumptions that consumers know how many calories they should consume throughout the course of a day and customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: October 2011

Resource Type: Report

It is often argued that farm subsidies have led to the overproduction of commodity crops, and removing these subsidies would help combat obesity by discouraging overproduction of crops that are … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Farm, Food systems, Healthy food financing, Rural, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: October 2011

Resource Type: Report

This report provides a snapshot of five categories of marketing tactics used by fast food, snack food, and soft drink companies to target children and adolescents. These categories include: 1) … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media

Date: October 2011

Resource Type: Research Review

The preschool years are a critically important period for developing healthy food preferences and motor skills. Since the majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Home, Media, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The provision of nutrition information on food packaging is one strategy to help consumers make food choices. The federal Nutrition Labeling and Education Act enacted in 1990 requires that almost … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Prior research evaluating children’s diets and physical activity report the need for improvements to ensure their daily nutrition and activity needs are met while in child-care settings. Limited research has … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Water

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will examine the potential effects of regulating the sale of competitive foods and beverages in schools, a lever which policy-makers may use to positively influence children’s consumption behaviors … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will provide new data about the potential for local governments to take meaningful action to prevent childhood obesity through policy implementation in child-care settings. Because local laws often … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Because lifelong diet habits are shaped in early childhood, California Food Policy Advocates worked with the California Legislature to successfully pass legislation creating healthy beverage standards for all licensed child-care … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Head Start, Home, Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 includes the first increase in the reimbursement rate for school meals in over 30 years and will likely become effective in 2012-2013. The … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), School meal programs

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is in the process of writing new regulations for the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) in response to the passage of … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study assesses front-of-package nutrition labeling using novel technology (eye tracking) in a population at risk for obesity (urban, lower-income, racial and ethnic minority). Eye tracking allows objective comparison of … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food advertising, Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, Point-of-decision prompts, Supermarket, Urban

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The impact of family food purchasing on child obesity is understudied, and little is known about the roles that consumer shopping behavior and local prices for goods with different nutritional … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Corner store, Food outlet, Grocery store, Physical activity, Supermarket, Taxes

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Food marketing that employs computers and mobile devices to engage young people has exploded in recent years and can directly target and geo-locate children, often without parental knowledge. State Attorneys … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Legal, Media, Snacks, Social media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article summarizes the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Home, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

In a 2005 report, Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity, an IOM expert committee concluded that prevailing food and beverage marketing practices did not support a healthful … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Food formulation, Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Media, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Snacks, Social media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses the development and validity of a self-administered survey to assess the nutrition and physical activity environment of child-care centers. The survey assesses four areas related to nutrition … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the extent to which foods and beverages marketed to youth on the internet and television are available and marketed in retail food stores. Researchers assessed food marketing … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food advertising, Food outlet, Front-of-package labeling, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Media, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper discusses the impact of early elementary school attendance on children’s body weight. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort of 1998 (ECLS-K), researchers compared the weights … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI)

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Report

This report summarizes findings from a 50-state survey of state consumer protection laws to identify key statutes that hold promise to protect children when they are the targets of marketing … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Legal, Media, Self-regulation

Date: September 2011

Resource Type: Issue Brief

This legal issue brief focuses on “pester power” food and beverage marketing, in which young children are targeted by marketers in an effort to get them to encourage their parents … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, In-store marketing, Legal, Media, Point-of-decision prompts

Date: August 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Evidence indicates that sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes may reduce rates of childhood obesity, particularly among high-risk populations. However, state and local efforts to enact SSB taxes have been unsuccessful, and … More

Keywords: Media, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: August 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Food and beverage marketing to youth using social media has grown dramatically, with the leading companies pioneering digital practices that are transforming both advertising and ad measurement. It is critically … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media

Date: August 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

Children and adolescents are not consuming enough water. Since children spend most of their day in school and child care settings, ensuring that safe, potable water is available in these … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Competitive foods, Food advertising, Food service, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines, Water

Date: July 2011

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

RWJF’s Bridging the Gap hosts a web page highlighting the program’s research related to state-level taxes on snack foods, soda, and other sweetened beverages. State-level sales tax rates are provided … More

Keywords: Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: July 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense foods near schools and student risk of being overweight or obese. Based on survey and geographic information systems (GIS) data for … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket

Date: July 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

Frequently used in the American Indian community, a Talking Circle is a method used by a group to discuss a topic in an egalitarian and non-confrontational manner. This article documents … More

Keywords: Community setting

Date: July 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article assesses the impact of fast food restaurant menu labeling on the calorie content of individual lunchtime purchases of customers in New York City. Researchers found that, for the … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: July 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article assesses how the news media framed the causes of childhood obesity and potential solutions to the problem over a ten-year period (2000-2009). Researchers found that by 2003, childhood … More

Keywords: Media

Date: June 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the range of food outlets around lower- and higher-income urban schools and compares the availability of healthy food items in those stores. It also examines whether stores … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Snacks, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: June 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines how Kansas school districts with low à la carte sales differ from districts with moderate to high à la carte sales on important demographic and financial characteristics. … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Rural, School meal programs, Snacks, Urban

Date: June 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines food purchasing behaviors of lower-income, urban African-American youth in Baltimore, Maryland. Youth reported spending an average on $3.96 of foods and beverages in a typical day. Corners … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Neighborhood, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Urban

Date: May 2011

Resource Type: Report

This report describes and provides examples of the types of digital marketing research utilized by the food and beverage industry and the potential effects it has on the health of … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media

Date: May 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

Since fruits and vegetables (FV) are rich in water and fiber, and low in energy density, FV consumption has been proposed as an obesity prevention strategy. This review article evaluates … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fruits and vegetables

Date: May 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines whether menu labeling in New York City (NYC) chain restaurants affects food purchases or frequency of fast food consumption by comparing a sample of lower-income adults in … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: May 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

More than 3.2 million children are enrolled in child-care programs that participate in and receive reimbursement for food from the United States Department of Agriculture’s Child and Adult Care Food … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Snacks

Date: May 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

The article presents an overview of existing simulation models (SMs) for obesity, discusses their strengths and weaknesses and suggests directions for future research. The authors conclude that SMs can serve … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI)

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program in the United States. In April 2012, a record 46.2 million people—approximately 15% of the U.S. population—were … More

Keywords: Food insecurity, Food outlet, Nutrition standards, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Given the significant reach and service the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) food assistance program has for lower-income populations most vulnerable to food insecurity and poor nutrition, there is an … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Farmers' markets, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

According to a 2008 Federal Trade Commission report, overall expenditures to promote foods and beverages to children and adolescents in the United States were more than $1.6 billion annually. Studies … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Media, Restaurant, Snacks, Spanish language, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Dietary guidance and nutrition policies have moved toward recommending whole fruit over juice and low- or non-fat milk over whole milk and flavored milk. However, little is known about the … More

Keywords: Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

This online Atlas provides a broad range of demographic, economic and agricultural data for rural and small towns across the United States. Users of the interactive mapping tool can create … More

Keywords: Rural

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The objective of this research is to conduct a comprehensive survey of stakeholder groups to identify barriers and opportunities for improving nutrition in the Federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Nutrition standards, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Supermarket, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article focuses on the food environment and food shopping habits of lower-income residents in rural Maine. Focus groups were conducted with lower-income parents of children enrolled in Medicaid/State Children’s … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Rural

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article discusses how the home food environment and caregiver and youth characteristics are associated with healthy food purchasing among lower-income African-American youth. Researchers found that intentions to eat healthier, … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Home, Neighborhood, Urban

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choices and the influence of calorie labels on adolescent and parent food choice in lower-income communities in New York City (NYC) and Newark, … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Report

This report provides a brief summary of how digital marketing works and the role it plays in promoting unhealthy food and beverages to children. Detailed in the report are key … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media

Date: April 2011

Resource Type: Research Review

Children in the United States grow up in environments saturated by food and beverage marketing, the bulk of it for foods low in nutrients and high in calories, sugars, salt … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Food outlet, Grocery store, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: March 2011

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

In May 2010 the White House Childhood Obesity Task Force identified the need to improve front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels to help consumers when making purchasing decisions. Multiple competing industry-initiated labeling … More

Keywords: Front-of-package labeling, Nutrition standards, Self-regulation

Date: March 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

While farmers’ markets and community gardens are growing in popularity as strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, little is known about their impact on dietary intake. This article reviews … More

Keywords: Community setting, Farmers' markets, Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: March 2011

Resource Type: Working Paper

This paper discusses how accountability pressures for schools to improve test score outcomes implemented under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) may affect children’s obesity. Using a unique dataset of Arkansas … More

Keywords: Academic achievement, Body mass index (BMI), Physical activity

Date: February 2011

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

The survey was designed to be self-completed by child-care providers of 2-5 year old children at preschools, centers or family daycare homes. Adapted from the NAP SACC tool validated by … More

Keywords: Food service, Physical activity, Snacks, Spanish language

Date: February 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

Food insecurity disproportionately affects U.S. demographic groups of children and adults at greatest risk for obesity and may lead to weight gain through various pathways. This article presents a comprehensive … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food insecurity, School meal programs, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: January 2011

Resource Type: Grant Summary

A number of states and cities are considering the imposition of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax aimed at reducing consumption and raising tax revenue to fund anti-obesity programs. The major … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: January 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

Understanding the relative importance of overconsumption and physical inactivity to excess weight gain among children and adolescents can contribute to the development and evaluation of interventions and policies to reduce … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Physical activity

Date: January 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines the effects of Maine’s statewide nutrition policy banning “foods of minimal nutritional value” in public high schools (Chapter 51). The food environment of public high schools participating … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food advertising, Food service, Nutrition standards, Rural, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: December 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

Recent trends in food insecurity in the United States parallel population increases in obesity. Historically, food insecurity and obesity have been viewed as distinct public health issues. However, since the … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food insecurity

Date: December 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines the health and financial impact of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on higher- and lower-income households. Using data from the 2006 Nielsen Homescan panel, researchers found … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: December 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines consumer awareness of calorie information at fast-food restaurant chains in New York City after the introduction of calorie labeling on menus and menu boards. Researchers found that … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (health care reform law) includes a national requirement for calorie labeling at chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. Development … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Restaurant

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Incentives that reward healthier food purchases and that provide reinforcement to the consumer have not been systematically and rigorously studied, particularly among lower-income populations. The aim of this study is … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Supermarket, Urban

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

A 2010 study found that there has been a 46% increase since 2005 in the reliance on emergency food by families in need. Surprisingly little is known about the nutritional … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

It is important to examine how the national school meal programs, which feed roughly half the country’s school-age population every school day, can contribute to preventing childhood obesity. Although the … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Point-of-purchase nutrition labeling policies are proposed as a mechanism to increase awareness of nutrient content, modify food selection decisions, reduce selections of energy dense foods and increase selections of nutrient … More

Keywords: Food service, Nutrition standards, Point-of-decision prompts, School meal programs, School wellness policies

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Televised food advertising to children has long been dominated by low-nutrient, high-calorie products. In response to public and policy-maker concern, 16 of the nation’s largest food conglomerates participate in a … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Fruits and vegetables, Media, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Few U.S. studies have investigated school drinking water access and policies and practices related to school drinking water. This project will investigate drinking water availability, policies and practices, and barriers … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Legal, School wellness policies, Vending machines, Water

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) industry is increasingly using corporate social responsibility campaigns—particularly cause marketing appeals via social media—to reach young people. The purpose of this study is to assess how … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Few studies have examined adolescent exposure to food marketing. This research gap is compounded by the dearth of academic studies of digital food marketing, especially regarding adolescents, who are exposed … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

There is increased attention and funding to policies that can increase the presence of supermarkets in lower-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods. While having access to a wide variety of foods is … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Supermarket, Urban

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The implementation of a new California law on January 1, 2011, will require chain restaurants to label calories on menus. This study will test the hypothesis that restaurants subject to … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The advertising and marketing of unhealthful foods and beverages via cross-promotions and premiums, such as toys and other incentives, may contribute to the development of unhealthy eating patterns and obesity, … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Food formulation, Food outlet, Media, Restaurant

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article evaluates the impact of legislation that established nutrition standards for competitive foods in California schools. Researchers found that regulation of competitive foods modestly improved school environments and student … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

Mobile food vending as a venue for food access has received little attention in the public health literature. This paper outlines key components of mobile food vending regulation and provides … More

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper examines student-involvement goals in local wellness policies by analyzing the characteristics of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania. Researchers found that the majority of LEAs in Pennsylvania included … More

Keywords: School wellness policies

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper describes the initial influence of Local Wellness Policies (LWPs) on the school nutrition environments and policies in lower-income, rural Colorado elementary schools. Overall, the researchers found that the … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Rural, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: October 2010

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

The Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) is an online evaluation of school wellness policies that address nutrition education and promotion, physical activity/physical education, school meals and competitive foods. It is … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: October 2010

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

The Healthy Eating Research (HER) Corner Store working group, comprised of HER grantees conducting research in this topic area, undertook a research project that builds on existing projects in multiple … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Spanish language, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: October 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The use of tax credits and other incentives is an increasingly looked-to approach to change food environments. Policies are being considered across the U.S. This project will evaluate the impact … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Healthy food financing, Neighborhood, Snacks, Supermarket, Taxes, Zoning

Date: October 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

Connecticut’s Healthy Food Certification (HFC) is a voluntary program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: September 2010

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Water, as a beverage replacement for sugar-sweetened beverages, is a promising school-based obesity prevention strategy. Implemented in July 2011, California Senate Bill 1413 (SB1413) requires schools to provide free, fresh … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: August 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines the location of fast food restaurants near schools in New York City, based on school type, school racial demographics and area racial and socioeconomic demographics. Researchers found … More

Keywords: Fast food, Geographic information systems, Neighborhood, Urban

Date: July 2010

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

The July 2010 edition of Preventing Chronic Disease featured a set of essays and commentaries on selecting the best tools, or metrics, for measuring and monitoring the health of communities. The essays … More

Date: July 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article assesses the availability of healthy foods in small food stores within four metropolitan areas: Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Oakland, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Overall, availability of healthy … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Snacks, Urban

Date: June 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper explores the rationale behind small store interventions by pulling together various studies in health, planning, and marketing literature and pilot work conducted in New Orleans. The authors discuss … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, In-store marketing, Neighborhood, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: May 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article describes obesity prevention activities directed at staff, parents and community partners in Head Start, the United States’ largest federally-funded early childhood education program. On the bases of survey … More

Keywords: Head Start

Date: May 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper focused on the impact changes in soft drink taxes and policies restricting school vending machine access had on soda consumption among children and adolescents. The researchers used data … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes, Vending machines

Date: April 2010

Resource Type: Research Review

In the United States, nearly 15 percent of households are food insecure; they have limited or uncertain access to food. This research synthesis reviews studies that examine the relationship between … More

Keywords: Farmers' markets, Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, School meal programs, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: March 2010

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

Health Affairs published a special issue focusing on the childhood obesity epidemic and the local, state, and federal policy approaches that could have greatest impact for helping to reverse it. The … More

Keywords: Community setting, Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Food advertising, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Head Start, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: March 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

Competitive foods, or foods and beverages sold outside of the school lunch program, are often cited as a contributing factor to the high rates of childhood obesity in the U.S. … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: March 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article explores whether new policies restricting ‘competitive’ foods and beverages in schools affected the increasing rates of overweight children in California. While the authors find that the rate of … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: March 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines Pennsylvania’s response to the Child Nutrition and Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Reauthorization Act of 2004. The analysis reveals that improvements were made to the nutritional quality … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: March 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article details findings gleaned from a national survey of all directors of Head Start, a program that provides early childhood education to nearly one million lower-income children, approximately one … More

Keywords: Head Start

Date: March 2010

Resource Type: Report

This 34-page report examines whether companies marketing food to children have adopted a policy on marketing to children, and if so, whether those policies are adequate in adhering to nutrition-based … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, In-store marketing, Media, Nutrition standards, Point-of-decision prompts, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: February 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This commentary uses a public health perspective to review the concept of healthy lifestyles for prevention of childhood obesity and explore how healthy-lifestyle initiatives are promoted through public-private partnerships. Healthy … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food advertising, Food insecurity, Media, Physical activity

Date: February 2010

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

Obesity published its first supplement focused on community-based solutions to childhood obesity. The aims of the supplement are to highlight evidence from recent community-based intervention studies and provide unique perspectives … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Home

Date: February 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In the fall of 2009, the Chicago Board of Health will adopt changes to child-care regulations intended to improve nutrition standards, establish minimum time requirements for physical activity and set … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Water

Date: February 2010

Resource Type: Report

Resulting from a detailed legal analysis of the 2008 Farm Bill, this report finds that lack of information about yields and prices for fruits and vegetables has undermined farmers’ ability … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Farm, Farmers' markets, Food outlet, Food systems, Fruits and vegetables, Legal, Rural, School meal programs, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: January 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In the US, 6.5 million children attend out-of-school time (OST) programs annually, participating in roughly three hours per day of activities typically including homework, snack and gross motor play. The … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: January 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The impact of menu labeling is unclear. A menu labeling law (beginning 1/1/09) in Seattle-King County, WA provides an opportunity to evaluate policy effectiveness. The Seattle-King County policy is different … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: January 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Powerful new forms of interactive television (ITV) advertising are being deployed in the US, reaching over 50 million homes by early 2010. Fast-food companies are among those marketers in the … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Legal, Media

Date: January 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article finds that mobile food vendors contribute to after-school snacking among children, and should be considered part of the school food environment. Based on data collected in Oakland, CA … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Mobile food vending, Neighborhood, Snacks, Urban

Date: January 2010

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper evaluates the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity and overweight. Researchers found that weight responds to changes in soft drink … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: December 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

There is growing interest in the role of the environment in promoting or hindering healthy eating. It has been suggested that individual change is more likely to be facilitated and … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Community setting, Competitive foods, Corner store, Fast food, Food advertising, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Home, Media, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, School meal programs, Supermarket

Date: December 2009

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

The Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition produced a special journal issue highlighting papers and discussions from the April 2009 conference, “Food Systems and Public Health: Linkages to Achieve Healthier … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Farm, Farmers' markets, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Food systems, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Rural, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Zoning

Date: December 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

The concept of economies of size refers to the ability to lower cost of production by increasing production. This article discusses economies of size in production agriculture and the consequences … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Farm, Food systems, Rural

Date: December 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article summarizes obesity prevention practices and environments within Head Start, the United States’ largest federally-funded early childhood education program. On the basis of survey data, researchers found that most … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Physical activity

Date: December 2009

Resource Type: Report

This report evaluates states’ healthy eating and physical activity regulations for two types of child care facilities: child-care centers and child-care homes. To determine states’ performance, experts first compiled a … More

Keywords: Home, Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The goal of this project is to examine how increases in family income generated by geographic- and time-varying changes in earned income tax credits (EITC) impact children’s body mass index, … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fast food, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Restaurant, Supermarket, Taxes

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Health advocates have increasingly argued for taxes on calorically sweetened beverages. However, there is little empirical research that evaluates the public health and fiscal impacts of such taxes while simultaneously … More

Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican-American children is exceedingly high. Understanding the role of mobile food vendors in low-income, limited-resource Mexican-American colonia neighborhoods is critical. With the involvement … More

Keywords: Food insecurity, Food outlet, Home, Mobile food vending, Neighborhood, Rural, Snacks

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The consumer protection framework may permit a variety of interventions to help control food marketing of children’s foods and beverages where such marketing may be considered unfair or deceptive. The … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, Legal, Media, Self-regulation

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

As digital media become ever more present in children’s lives, public health researchers and policy-makers need to understand how the new marketing ecosystem infiltrates and influences consumers. Yet specialized, commercially-sponsored … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Low-income, underserved communities are often plagued with unhealthy food environments. A community’s comprehensive plan directly influences urban design and land-use regulations, which affect neighborhood food availability. While some local governments … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Food systems, Legal, Rural, Urban, Zoning

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Maine’s Chapter 156, the first statewide law banning junk food and beverage marketing in schools, went into effect in September 2007. No statewide policies to restrict marketing in schools exist … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food advertising, Media, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Vending machines, Water

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Approximately 50% of preschool-aged children in California are enrolled in licensed child-care settings, primarily in day care centers. These children consume a significant portion of their daily nutrition in child-care … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Spanish language

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

American Indian children endure disproportionately high obesity rates, yet few academic institutions have cultivated sustainable relationships with American Indian communities committed to improving food access. This project will: (1) apply … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Legal, Rural

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The combination of obesity amidst food insecurity presents unique challenges to improving nutrition and feeding policies in institutions serving children. The aim of this study is to evaluate child care … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food insecurity, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Snacks

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Through cooperation between the food service industry and public health, this project aims to improve nutritional quality of kids’ menus in fast food restaurants. This study will examine pooled sales … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fast food, Restaurant

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

No prior interventions have focused exclusively on reducing purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in real-world settings among black adolescents. Providing easily understandable caloric information may be a low-cost, sustainable strategy … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Major policy changes in WIC voucher provision for a wide range of healthy foods has the potential to impact the more than eight million U.S. families that receive WIC benefits … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Spanish language, Supermarket, Urban, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Food marketing and advertising may be important determinants of childhood obesity. However, empirical attention has focused on television as a vehicle of marketing to children in the home, with limited … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Corner store, Food advertising, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, In-store marketing, Neighborhood, Supermarket

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper assesses the effect of mandated calorie labeling on fast food choices in New York City. A sample of more than 1,000 adults at fast-food restaurants in low-income, minority … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This study provides data on what children purchase in corner stores located near their schools. The investigators collected data on 833 purchases that students made before and after school at … More

Keywords: Corner store, Food outlet, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: November 2009

Resource Type: Research Review

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by adolescents and children in the United States has been linked to less healthy diets, excessive caloric intake and weight gain, increased obesity rates, and … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: September 2009

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

A RWJF-sponsored conference on childhood obesity and children’s body mass index (BMI) has led to a special supplement on the surveillance, screening and reporting of children’s BMI. The conference, which … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Legal

Date: September 2009

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

The purpose of the supplement is to present recent findings from RWJF grantees funded under the Healthy Eating Research and Active Living Research programs, as well as from RWJF’s Bridging … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Digital marketing, Media, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: September 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article examines the effects of the new food and beverage standards in a representative sample of 56 California high schools during the first year of implementation. Researchers found that … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: September 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper demonstrates that a 19-item beverage and snack questionnaire (BSQ) developed by researchers can effectively capture data on consumption of targeted foods as well as more lengthy food records. … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: September 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper finds that school district policies related to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and exposure to SSB in middle schools were significant predictors of student SSB consumption. The paper describes the … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Rural, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Vending machines

Date: August 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

In this paper the authors investigate the potential for soft drink taxes to combat the rise in child and adolescent obesity levels through a reduction in consumption. Using state soft … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: July 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This article reviews literature examining the impact food systems have on creating and exacerbating health disparities in the United States. It highlights directions for future research and policies to address … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Community setting, Competitive foods, Farmers' markets, Food advertising, Food outlet, Food systems, Healthy food financing, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Taxes, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: July 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper documents the reliability of a new coding tool developed to evaluate the quality of school wellness policies. The 96-item coding tool assesses seven goal areas, and each of … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School wellness policies

Date: July 2009

Resource Type: Research Review

This research brief examines the latest information on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and food pricing strategies. The brief concludes that taxes resulting in substantially higher prices of SSBs could be a … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: June 2009

Resource Type: Research Review

This research synthesis reviews studies that have examined the use of menu labeling in away-from-home food establishments, such as restaurants and cafeterias, and the potential impact of labeling on consumers’ … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: June 2009

Resource Type: Research Review

The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 mandated that school districts participating in any federally reimbursed school meal programs develop a local school wellness policy by the beginning … More

Keywords: Academic achievement, Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: May 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The U.S. Department of Agriculture will implement a ground-breaking new policy by October 1, 2009 that adds a cash-value voucher for fruits and vegetables to the food packages provided in … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Supermarket, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: April 2009

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

The American Journal of Preventive Medicine (AJPM) published proceedings from a November 2007 workshop on “Measures of the Food and Built Environments.” The workshop was co-sponsored by the Robert Wood … More

Keywords: Community setting, Competitive foods, Corner store, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Physical activity, Restaurant, Rural, Supermarket, Urban

Date: April 2009

Resource Type: Report

This brief discusses legal issues surrounding the provision of competitive foods in on-campus venues-including school stores and concessions and fundraising environments. Designed as a companion to Off the Map: Extracurricular … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Legal, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: April 2009

Resource Type: Report

This brief discusses key issue involved with foods distributed in school stores, concessions, and fundraising activities-venues for competitive foods. It outlines the legal and policy approaches to improving enforcement of … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Legal, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: April 2009

Resource Type: Report

This document, a companion to Off the Map: Extracurricular School Food-Open Campus Lunch, provides a legal framework for the issues surrounding open-campus lunch policies, which allow high school students to … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Legal, School meal programs

Date: April 2009

Resource Type: Report

This brief discusses open-campus and off-campus lunch policies, which allow high school students to go outside school boundaries to buy and eat food during their lunch breaks. The document addresses … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Legal, School meal programs

Date: March 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) approved calorie labeling for restaurant chains with 15 or more stores nationally as part of the city’s effort to … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: March 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

Schools have an unparalleled opportunity to promote children’s health by creating an environment in which children eat healthy foods, engage in regular physical activity, and learn life-long skills for healthy … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Farm, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: March 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper documents the relation between racial and socioeconomic inequalities and the density of fast food in New York City. The researchers found that areas that were predominantly Black had … More

Keywords: Fast food, Geographic information systems, Neighborhood, Urban, Zoning

Date: March 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper documents the effectiveness of the federal mandated Local Wellness Policy on 45 rural elementary schools in Colorado. Using baselines and follow-up surveys conducted up to one year after … More

Keywords: Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Rural, School wellness policies

Date: March 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

Using the Yale Rudd Center Public Opinion on Obesity Survey, this study examines how individuals’ demographic/health characteristics, political attitudes and beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for … More

Date: March 2009

Resource Type: Report

This report summarizes the results of a survey assessing the nutrition and physical activity environments for 2- to 5-year old children in licensed child-care facilities in California, including child-care centers … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: February 2009

Resource Type: Special Journal Issue

Numerous authoritative reports have identified environmental and policy interventions as the most promising strategies for creating population-wide improvements in diet, physical activity, and obesity. Yet many methodologic challenges to conducting … More

Date: February 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

Since children and adolescents spend a large amount of time each day at school and consume a substantial portion of their daily food intake there, it is critical to assess … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Commodity foods, Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: February 2009

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project seeks to determine the extent to which a successful state-sponsored program to improve the activity and nutrition environments of schools can be adapted successfully for child care centers. … More

Keywords: Food service, Head Start, Physical activity, Urban

Date: February 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

Using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, this study estimates the association between school food environments and practices and children’s likelihood for obesity. (Obesity was defined as … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: February 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

Using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, this study estimates the effects of school food environments on children’s consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods and fruits … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: January 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

This comprehensive review examined 54 studies that evaluated neighborhood access to food outlets, the types of foods available in stores and restaurants, dietary information and weight status. The review found … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Restaurant, Rural, Supermarket, Urban

Date: January 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

There are 8.6 million preschool-aged children enrolled in child-care facilities in the United States. The licensing regulations for these facilities in the areas of nutrition, physical activity, and media use … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Home, Media, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Vending machines

Date: December 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In New York City, a new policy now being implemented mandates city-wide calorie labeling posted on the menu boards of all fast-food restaurants. In assessing this policy, this study has … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: November 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Multnomah County passed a menu labeling policy that will go into effect January 1, 2009, as one of only five jurisdictions in the U.S. to have passed such a policy. … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: November 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene approved a regulation that requires that calorie information be posted on menu boards for restaurant chains with 15 or more … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food formulation, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: November 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

Elementary school children in communities with high produce prices are more likely to gain weight than those areas with low produce costs, according to a study published in Public Health. … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Fruits and vegetables

Date: October 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In March 2008, the King County Board of Health approved the second restaurant nutrition information regulation in the nation, requiring chain restaurants to provide information on calories, saturated fats, carbohydrates, … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: October 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will examine associations between neighborhood food environments, dietary intake and weight status among Latino families with preschool-age children. The specific aims of this work are to: (a) identify … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Neighborhood, Spanish language, Urban

Date: October 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

Eating out comprises more than half of Americans’ food budget, and labeling calories in restaurants has been proposed to help consumers make healthier choices. This review article evaluates the available … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant

Date: October 2008

Resource Type: Research Review

This brief examines how foods and beverages are marketed to children and adolescents, how food and beverage companies encourage younger individuals to buy their products and whether limiting youth’s exposure … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Fast food, Food advertising, Food formulation, Media, Restaurant, School wellness policies, Self-regulation, Social media, Spanish language

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Through this research, investigators will develop and test experimental methods for increasing public support for policies regulating food marketing to children. The significance of this project lies in its potential … More

Keywords: Food advertising, Media, Spanish language

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the nutritional quality of the foods advertised on children’s programs on Spanish-language broadcast and cable channels, and to compare it to … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food advertising, Fruits and vegetables, Media, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Snacks, Spanish language

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will characterize demographic and financial differences in the dependence on a la carte food sales among school food service programs. Specifically, the aims of this research are to: … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, School meal programs, Snacks

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This research will evaluate the influence of two low-cost approaches to serving meals in child care programs on children’s dietary intake. Specifically, a randomized crossover design experiment will be conducted … More

Keywords: Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Urban

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will examine the strengths and weaknesses of self-regulation in addressing food marketing practices that contribute to childhood obesity. Investigators will document the impact and effectiveness of the Children’s … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Legal, Media, Self-regulation

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this project is to provide a comprehensive investigation of the relationship between food prices and food advertising on childhood obesity using multiple data sources that span the … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Corner store, Fast food, Food advertising, Food outlet, Grocery store, Media, Physical activity, Restaurant, Supermarket

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The overall goal of this project is to develop relevant, evidence-based resources to guide the creation or revision of state-level child care regulations aimed at promoting healthy eating. Investigators will … More

Keywords: Home, Nutrition standards, Physical activity

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will utilize a “natural experiment” study design, examining the influence of the opening of a new full-service grocery store in a low-income, multi-ethnic neighborhood in San Francisco. The … More

Keywords: Community setting, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Neighborhood, Urban

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this research is to examine new digital and interactive food and beverage marketing practices, primarily targeting children and adolescents. Specifically, this study will: (a) provide a comprehensive … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Media, Social media

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will examine the extent to which household food purchasing behavior differs between higher- and lower-income households and whether these differences may be partly responsible for socioeconomic differences in … More

Keywords: Home, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The goal of this work is to provide an in-depth examination and comparison of industry efforts to self-regulate food and beverage marketing to children. More specifically, this macro-level analysis will: … More

Keywords: Digital marketing, Food advertising, Front-of-package labeling, In-store marketing, Media, Nutrition standards, Point-of-decision prompts, Self-regulation, Social media

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will identify laws and policies affecting production and distribution of healthier foods to local communities’ schools, institutions, farmers’ markets, and grocery stores. It will analyze policies that currently … More

Keywords: Community setting, Farm, Farmers' markets, Food outlet, Food systems, Fruits and vegetables, Legal, Rural

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This aim of this work is to evaluate disparities in school-level nutrition policies and practices across the U.S. More specifically, the objective of this research is to (a) determine the … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food advertising, Fruits and vegetables, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The goal of this research is to evaluate the Fresh to You (FTY) program, which aims to increase year-round access to affordable, high-quality, fresh fruits and vegetables for low-income families … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food insecurity, Fruits and vegetables, Home, Spanish language, Urban

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of two soft drink policies (soft drink taxes and restricting vending machine access in schools) on child and adolescent soft … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Sugar-sweetened beverages, Taxes, Vending machines

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will examine the food environments among YMCA after-school programs that primarily serve African-American children on Chicago’s South side, as well as factors impacting the implementation of such after-school … More

Keywords: Community setting, Physical activity, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The goal of this study is to examine how food environments influence rural childhood obesity rates and food choices, in order to ultimately help policymakers find effective rural policy interventions. … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Rural

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of a brief, low-cost school environment audit tool, which is currently administered to all Pennsylvania Keystone Healthy Zone … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Physical activity

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will examine strategies for implementing farmers’ markets in low-income communities, as well as barriers that need to be addressed to improve the viability of markets in these areas. … More

Keywords: Community setting, Farmers' markets, Fruits and vegetables, Urban

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

To better understand how to improve healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods, the aim of this study is to examine financial incentives around selling specific types of food. Specifically, this … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, In-store marketing, Neighborhood, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Capitalizing on a natural experiment and existing data, this project will investigate the impact of competitive food and beverage policies on child and adolescent weight status. This work specifically includes … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

This paper assesses Pennsylvania public school district local wellness policies, compares the policies to local wellness policy mandate requirements and provides information about the local wellness policy development process. Researchers … More

Keywords: School wellness policies

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

A study in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association finds that limiting the availability of soft drinks in elementary schools may not significantly affect overall soda consumption by children. … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: September 2008

Resource Type: Report

This report found that school districts fail to take advantage of healthier foods offered by the federal child nutrition commodity program, despite improvements in the nutritional quality of foods offered … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs

Date: July 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

Easy availability of snacks, sodas, alcohol, and fast food in the immediate vicinity of a school could easily negate school food policies. Surrounding food outlets could also lower the effectiveness … More

Keywords: Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Restaurant, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: July 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

Based on 2005 data, this study found that 97% of high schools and 82% of middle schools had vending machines, compared with 17% of elementary schools. In addition, 93% of … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: July 2008

Resource Type: Research Review

Each week, the average household in the United States spends about $100 on groceries and makes two shopping trips. This research brief outlines where people shop for food, what they … More

Keywords: Corner store, Farmers' markets, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Grocery store, Healthy food financing, Neighborhood, Rural, Supermarket, Urban

Date: July 2008

Resource Type: Research Review

In 2008, Americans were expected to spend $558 billion eating at restaurants. This research brief explores how access to restaurants is related to the risk for obesity and describes what … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Neighborhood, Point-of-decision prompts, Restaurant, Urban

Date: May 2008

Resource Type: Tools & Measures

This report identifies existing surveillance systems and databases containing information that not only tracks the current state of the childhood obesity problem, but that can also provide evidence to help … More

Date: April 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

Individual behavior to make healthy choices can occur only in a supportive environment with accessible and affordable healthy food choices. This article presents an overview of food environments and strategies … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Commodity foods, Competitive foods, Food advertising, Food outlet, Grocery store, Home, Media, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, School meal programs, Supermarket

Date: January 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

How does First Amendment protection affect food and beverage marketing in schools? This study concludes that while the First Amendment keeps a tight rein on those who want to restrict … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Food advertising, Legal, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: November 2007

Resource Type: Report

School food environments are complex, particularly because they must function within a plethora of state, federal and local regulations. Individuals who work in this system-food service directors, superintendents, or others … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Legal, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The overall objectives of this project are to study inequality in New York City’s food environment, and more specifically, the distribution of fast food restaurants. Specifically, this project will study … More

Keywords: Fast food, Food insecurity, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Neighborhood, Restaurant, Urban

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will investigate preschool food policies through two primary aims. First, the study will develop new measures and examine the validity of existing preschool nutrition measures through rigorous psychometric … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Head Start, Physical activity, Snacks

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will evaluate an innovative intervention to change the food environment to reduce obesity risk among low-income urban African American children. Specifically, it will (a) develop, implement and evaluate … More

Keywords: Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Home, In-store marketing, Point-of-decision prompts, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project uses a series of field experiments in daycare centers to determine how small changes in the way snacks and meals are presented to children, such as pairing foods … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Snacks

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of school vending machine policies on adolescent beverage consumption in predominantly rural high schools across New Hampshire and Vermont. Using … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Food advertising, Rural, School wellness policies, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines, Water

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study aims: (a) to inform the public health, policy and child care communities about the foods and beverages served to 3-5 year olds in licensed child care facilities in … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Head Start, Nutrition standards, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Water

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will evaluate the efficacy of a community-based, environmental intervention in urban corner stores located near schools. By targeting multiple aspects of the corner store environment (e.g., social, educational, … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Community setting, Corner store, Food outlet, In-store marketing, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this study is to create a self-report instrument which will measure the child care nutrition environment and provide evidence for the reliability of scores and validity of … More

Keywords: Physical activity

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The proposed study will increase knowledge about the role of street vendors in the after-school eating environment among elementary and middle school children in low-income neighborhoods. The overall aim is … More

Keywords: Community setting, Food outlet, Fruits and vegetables, Geographic information systems, Mobile food vending, Snacks, Spanish language, Urban

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The key objective of this project is to develop a computer simulation model of school food policies that will simulate their effects on youth overweight and obesity rates. This computer … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, School meal programs, Snacks

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Extracurricular school settings are an essential part of the school food environment but are often outside direct school regulation or are poorly enforced. Using legal analyses, this project will produce … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food outlet, Legal, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this project is to examine how food costs and reimbursement rates impact the dietary quality of foods that are served in family day care homes. Taking advantage … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Nutrition standards, Snacks

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the impact of two interventions on improved nutrition behaviors among low-income students. These on-going interventions have been initiated by key stakeholder … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In 2007, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene added physical activity and nutrition policies for group daycare centers to the NYC Health Code. This project will evaluate whether … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Urban

Date: September 2007

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aim of this study is to describe eating environments and policies in Head Start at the national level, examining their variation by program characteristics. In partnership with DHHS and … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Community setting, Food service, Head Start, Home, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks

Date: May 2007

Resource Type: Research Review

While children spend a substantial amount of time in school, more than half of kids aged 5 to 14 years are also spending time in a child-care setting. This is … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Media, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: May 2007

Resource Type: Research Review

Schools that provide federally reimbursed meal programs must meet federal nutrition standards. But snacks and drinks sold outside of these programs—so-called competitive foods—do not have to meet these requirements. This … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Fast food, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: March 2007

Resource Type: Report

This paper briefly describes the economic nature of crop agriculture, then presents an overview of agricultural policy before addressing whether U.S. agricultural policy truly contributes to the growing levels of … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Farm, Fruits and vegetables, Rural

Date: March 2007

Resource Type: Report

The epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States has caused considerable challenges for public health agencies and advocates. This article explores the types of public actions and policies that … More

Keywords: Farm, Fast food, Food advertising, Legal, Nutrition standards, Restaurant, Self-regulation, Taxes

Date: February 2007

Resource Type: Report

This paper describes some of the ways that agricultural policies influence what foods (and how much of them) are produced and eaten in the United States. In doing so, the … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Competitive foods, Farm, Food systems, Fruits and vegetables, School meal programs, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: February 2007

Resource Type: Report

This paper was written before the passage of the 2007 Farm Bill in December 2007, but the text effectively describes how this new bill (written in anticipation of the legislation’s … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Farm, Farmers' markets, Food systems, Fruits and vegetables, Rural, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

In 2006, Atlanta Public Schools will implement mandated wellness policies in all the schools at every level. Each school may develop and implement its own plan. This study will investigate … More

Keywords: School wellness policies, Urban

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

North Carolina passed legislation to implement recommended nutrition standards in schools. A pilot study conducted in 2004-05 in seven school districts (123 elementary schools varying by size, region, and demographics) … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Nutrition advocates and school administrators will be more successful in their efforts to improve the foods and beverages sold and advertised on school campuses if they are familiar with – … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Food advertising, Legal, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The Policy Legislation and Nutrition (PLAN) study will examine the impact of state and local policies on the school nutrition environment and on the students’ dietary behaviors. Data will be … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, Rural, School wellness policies, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Urban, Vending machines

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of state competitive food policies, food environments inside schools, and food environments nearby schools on children’s food purchases, consumption, and … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Corner store, Fast food, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Grocery store, Restaurant, Snacks, Supermarket

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The purpose of the study is: (a) to identify School Food Policy Environments and Policies (SFEPs) that are most likely to affect students’ dietary behaviors and/or weight, and (b) to … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Food service, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project is designed to identify and evaluate environmental and policy features related to healthy eating among elementary schools located throughout low-income, Hispanic and non-Hispanic, urban and rural Colorado. In … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Fruits and vegetables, Physical activity, Rural, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks, Urban, Vending machines

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This project will be a natural experiment examining issues related to school wellness policy development and implementation, and changes in school nutrition environments as schools work to comply with the … More

Keywords: Body mass index (BMI), Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The aims of the study are to: 1) Assess the impact of California’s legislated standards for competitive foods on the food and beverage environment in 50 randomly selected public high … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will provide a rare assessment of the Child Nutrition Commodity Food Program, examining the nutrition quality of the foods made available by the program, the manner in which … More

Keywords: Commodity foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, School meal programs

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

The present study will study the predictors, quality, and impact of Connecticut’s School Wellness Programs (SWP). The aims are to: 1) create, validate, and apply an assessment tool to measure … More

Keywords: Academic achievement, Competitive foods, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School wellness policies, Snacks

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Stricter school accountability standards have changed the inner workings of elementary schools in the United States, raising test scores in the process. These changes have been particularly abrupt in schools … More

Keywords: Academic achievement, Body mass index (BMI), Physical activity

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

This study will examine the legal environment facing schools as they seek to limit access to unhealthy foods and the marketing of unhealthy foods. The Public Health Advocacy Institute (PHAI) … More

Keywords: Beverage contracts, Competitive foods, Legal, Snacks, Vending machines

Date: June 2006

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Maine’s Chapter 51 rule represents one of the strongest current state-wide school nutrition standards in the country. Study aims: 1) examine effects of Chapter 51, on high school nutrition policies, … More

Keywords: Competitive foods, Food outlet, Geographic information systems, Nutrition standards, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines

Date: April 2006

Resource Type: Journal Article

A majority of American children participate in non-parental child-care arrangements in child-care centers and homes. The child-care setting can play a major role in shaping children’s dietary intake, physical activity, … More

Keywords: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), Food service, Fruits and vegetables, Head Start, Home, Media, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

Date: April 2006

Resource Type: Journal Article

Schools can play an important part in the national effort to prevent childhood obesity. More than 95 percent of American youth aged 5 to 17 are enrolled in school, and … More

Keywords: Academic achievement, Body mass index (BMI), Commodity foods, Competitive foods, Food service, Nutrition standards, Physical activity, School meal programs, Snacks, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Vending machines