This paper examines whether menu labeling in New York City (NYC) chain restaurants affects food purchases or frequency of fast food consumption by comparing a sample of lower-income adults in NYC to a similar sample in Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling). The study showed mixed findings. Researchers found no significant differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult customers in NYC and Newark. Adults in NYC who reported seeing and using calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels.