This paper provides a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on dietary quality, food consumption, and spending among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants as compared to income-eligible and higher-income nonparticipants. Twenty-five studies that were peer reviewed, published between January 2003 and August 2014, and provided data on dietary quality and intake of SNAP participants and nonparticipants were included in the review. Most results suggest no statistically significant difference in caloric intake for SNAP participants compared to income-eligible and higher-income nonparticipants. Differences emerged in dietary quality, with SNAP-participating adults having less nutritious diets that either group of nonparticipants, and SNAP-participating children having less nutritious diets than higher-income children.