Federal and California state legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water where school lunches are served, yet many schools in California do not provide free water in school food service areas (FSAs). When water is provided, it is usually provided via fountains which may be unappealing to students, and studies are needed to understand what specific changes to the school water environment are most effective in increasing students’ water intake. The aims of this study are to: 1) develop a valid protocol for assessing California students’ water intake in school and use this measure to assess how effective different water delivery systems are in increasing students’ water intake; 2) use a pre-post test quasi-experimental study to examine whether promotion (signage) plus provision of a non-fountain water delivery system (i.e., Cambro dispensers, hydration stations, or taps designed for refilling a reusable water bottle) with cups is more effective in increasing water intake among students as compared to controls (fountains without promotion); 3) obtain estimates of the cost of water provision through various delivery systems (i.e., fountain, hydration station, and Cambro dispenser) and use such data along with consumption data to calculate the cost per ounce of water consumed by delivery system; and 4) disseminate study findings to ensure effective implementation of state and federal requirements for free water in school FSAs.