Competitive foods are foods and beverages that compete with school meal programs. They are sold through vending machines, a la carte cafeteria lines, school stores and other venues. Given that the foods and beverages available in schools have a significant impact on children’s diets and their weight, it is important to understand how competitive foods and beverages are sold and consumed by students in school, as well as to identify effective strategies for improving the nutritional quality of those products. This research review, developed jointly by RWJF’s Healthy Eating Research and Bridging the Gap programs, examines the emerging evidence about the influence of competitive food and beverage policies on children’s diets and childhood obesity. It also discusses the policy implications of the published studies and identifies areas for future research.