Optimal nutrition is critical for children’s short- and long-term health including maintaining a healthy weight and prevention of chronic diseases, as well as infant, child, and adolescent physical development, cognitive development, early learning, and academic success. Having a high quality diet relies on the ability to consume a diversified, balanced, and healthy eating pattern, which provides all the essential nutrients for growth and development and a healthy and active life. Research in this area focuses on monitoring and improving eating patterns and dietary intakes, and understanding how individual’s food and beverage choices are impacted by larger policies, systems, and environments.