This study compared the results of direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities in North Carolina, without a list guiding the field observation, to several secondary data sources. Researchers identified 699 food outlets during primary on-site data collection. The match rate for primary and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Secondary data from ReferenceUSA and local health departments provided a relatively accurate identification of the local food environment in American Indian communities. However, secondary data sources over- and under-counted the food outlets and were particularly problematic for identifying convenience stores and specialty markets.