Schools have an unparalleled opportunity to promote children’s health by creating an environment in which children eat healthy foods, engage in regular physical activity, and learn life-long skills for healthy eating and active living. In this article, authors discuss the role of schools in obesity prevention efforts, current issues in schools’ food and physical activity environments, as well as federal, state, and local policies related to food and physical activity standards in schools. The article is organized around four key areas: 1) school food environments and policies; 2) school physical activity environments and policies; 3) school body mass index measurements; and 4) school wellness policies. Promising school policies and practices and recommendations for future research are also discussed.