Start Date: May 2017

ID #: CAS043

Organization: University of Pennsylvania

Project Lead: Karen Glanz, PhD, MPH

See more related research


The purpose of this mixed-method evaluation is to complete a series of case studies in five cities to identify best practices, barriers, recommendations, and other considerations for healthy vending policies and initiatives affecting children and youth. Vending machines that are accessible to children and adolescents will be the focus of this evaluation. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with multiple stakeholders from each site which will focus on facilitators and barriers to implementing and evaluating healthy vending policies. The interviews will gather information on recommended policy language or evaluation methods that should be included in future healthy vending policies. During site visits, observations of vending machine content and the general food environment using an adapted version of the NEMS-V (food and drinks available, placement and promotion of healthier items, compliance with healthy vending policy) will be conducted, as well as people purchasing food and drinks from the vending machines. Additionally, short intercept surveys will be conducted with adults using the vending machines to assess reactions to the products available in the vending machines and to ask about purchases. Finally, sales data will be used when available to understand purchases, trend, and impact on businesses.

Related Research

July 2018

Evaluating Healthy Vending Policies for Youth in Four Cities

Vending machines are a common source for low nutrient, energy-dense snacks and beverages and youth can easily access vending machines at many public spaces such as parks, recreation centers, and swimming pools. Many cities are beginning to adopt healthy vending policies in public areas, but evidence regarding best practices for developing, implementing, and evaluating these healthy More

November 2021

Healthier Food Donation Guidelines for Retailers and Distributors

People who rely on the charitable food system both want and deserve nutritious food and beverages that support their health. Yet a 2018 report by MAZON: A Jewish Response to Hunger and the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity found that, on average, 25 percent of food bank distributions remain unhealthy. CSPI conducted research More

October 2021

Healthier Food Donation Guidelines for Retailers and Distributors

Nutritious donations are more important than ever: 60 million people turned to the charitable food system in 2020. Food banks rely on retail and distributor donations for about 30 percent of inventory, and often receive unwanted unhealthy food, like soda and candy. This resource was developed to help food retailers and distributors donate more nutritious More