Dietary guidance and nutrition policies have moved toward recommending whole fruit over juice and low- or non-fat milk over whole milk and flavored milk. However, little is known about the potential for these changes to reduce total energy intake in the diets of children. This project explored and quantified the nutritional impact, in terms of both nutrient intake and energy intake, of substituting whole fruit for fruit juice and low-fat and non-fat milk for whole milk by children. Additionally, a monetary analysis provided estimates on the likely added cost or cost savings that would be associated with such dietary changes. The analyses were based on children with a valid 24-hour recall for all children ages 3-18 in the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) releases. Dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were derived for individual children based on data from the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). The costs of children’s diets were derived from the food prices from a database released by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Diet composition and cost were then characterized for several survey-weighted race and socioeconomic strata (family income to poverty ratio).
Start Date: April 2011
ID #: CAS004
Organization: University of Washington
Project Lead: Pablo Monsivais, PhD, MPH
Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary
Potential Population-Level Nutritional Impact of Replacing Whole and Reduced-Fat Milk With Low-Fat and Skim Milk Among US Children Aged 2-19 YearsThis study aimed to evaluate the population-level impact of substituting low-fat and skim milk for whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]) on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Analyses were based on data from 8,112 children and adolescents (ages 2-19) who completed a 24-hour dietary recall through the National More
Potential Nutritional and Economic Effects of Replacing Juice with Fruit in the Diets of Children in the United StatesOne hundred percent fruit juice makes up a substantial part of the total fruit intakes of children and is a major contributor to their total nutrient intake. However, fruit juices have energy densities similar to sugar-sweetened beverages and might contribute to excess energy intake, obesity, and weight gain. This paper discusses the results of a More