This study reviews existing evidence for modifiable childhood obesity risk factors that are present from conception to age 2. This period, described as the first 1,000 days, is a critical period for development of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences. The results of this study are based on 282 studies published between January 1, 1980 and December 12, 2014. Several risk factors during the first 1,000 days were consistently associated with later childhood obesity, including higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal excess gestational weight gain, prenatal tobacco exposure, high infant birth weight, and accelerated infant weight gain. Other factors had inconsistent results or were only supported by a small number of studies. The author concludes that targeting healthy pre-conceptual weight and gestational weight gain, tobacco avoidance, and healthy infant weight gain with adherence to current infancy nutrition and sleep recommendations shows promise for childhood obesity prevention.
Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in the First 1,000 Days: A Systematic Review
The first 1,000 days, or the period from conception through age 2, is increasingly recognized as a critical period for the development of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences. This issue brief is based on two review papers that examined evidence on risk factors for developing childhood obesity and interventions … More
The first 1,000 days – conception through age 2 – represents an important period for the development and prevention of childhood obesity. This study reviews existing evidence from interventions occurring in the first 1,000 days that included prevention of childhood overweight or obesity as an outcome, identifies gaps in current … More
More than 21.8 million school-age children receive free or reduced-price school lunch and 12.6 million children receive free or reduced-price breakfast each day. Since updated nutrition standards for school meals, snack foods, and beverages have been implemented following passage of the 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, a growing body of … More