Published: October 2021

Journal: Nutrients

Authors: Cohen JFW, Hecht AA, Hager ER, Turner L, Burkholder K, Schwartz MB

See more related research


This systematic review evaluates studies examining initiatives, interventions, and policies to increase school meal consumption. Following PRISMA guidelines, this review was conducted using four databases and resulted in a total of 96 studies. The research evidence supports the following strategies to increase school meal consumption: (1) offering students more menu choices; (2) adapting recipes to improve the palatability and/or cultural appropriateness of foods; (3) providing pre-sliced fruits; (4) rewarding students who try fruits and vegetables; (5) enabling students to have sufficient time to eat with longer (~30 min) lunch periods; (6) having recess before lunch; and (7) limiting students’ access to competitive foods during the school day. Research findings were mixed when examining the impact of nutrition education and/or offering taste tests to students, although multiple benefits for nutrition education outside the cafeteria were documented. There is some evidence that choice architecture (i.e., “Smarter Lunchroom”) techniques increase the proportion of students who select targeted meal components; however, there is not evidence that these techniques alone increase consumption. There were limited studies of the impact of increasing portion sizes; serving vegetables before other meal components; and strengthening local district and/or school wellness policies, suggesting that further research is necessary. Additionally, longer-term studies are needed to understand the impact of policies that limit students’ access to flavored milk. Several studies found increases in students’ meal consumption following the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) and concerns regarding an increase in food waste following the HHFKA were not supported. Overall, there are a range of effective strategies to increase school meal consumption that can be implemented by schools, districts, and policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels.

Related Research

June 2023

Understanding Barriers and Facilitators of Universal Free School Meals in NYS

When waivers for Universal Free School Meals (UFSM) ended in 2022, approximately 726,000 students lost access to free meals in New York (NY). This study examines the impact of maintaining (or de-implementing) Universal Free School Meals in NY, especially for Black and Hispanic/Latino families who may be disproportionately impacted by pre-existing inequities. This study will More

March 2023

Reducing Student Exposure to Digital Food and Beverage Marketing: Policy and Practice Recommendations

Digital marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents is pervasive, highly effective, undermines healthy eating, and contributes to health inequities. Expanded use of electronic devices and remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the urgency for policy interventions to limit digital food marketing in schools and on school-issued devices. The US More

February 2023

Rapid Health Impact Assessment on Changes to School Nutrition Standards to Align with 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The national school breakfast and lunch programs administered by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) are cornerstone federal nutrition assistance programs. School meals are one of the healthiest sources of foods for school-age children, which is significant as some children receive up to half of their daily calories at school. Policy opportunities in 2023 More