Published: July 2023

Journal: J Nutr Educ Behav

Authors: Firoozi R, Weeks HM, Ludwig-Borcyz E, Clayson M, Zawistowski M, Needham B, Bauer KW

See more related research


This study examined beverage intake among families with low income by household participation in federal food assistance programs. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in fall/winter 2020 via an online survey. Participants were mothers of young children insured by Medicaid at the time of the child’s birth (N = 493). Mothers reported household federal food assistance program participation, later categorized as Supplementation Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) only, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP) only, both WIC and SNAP, and neither. Mothers reported beverage intake for themselves and their children aged 1-4 years. After accounting for sociodemographic differences between groups, mothers from households participating in WIC and SNAP consumed sugar-sweetened beverages and bottled water more frequently than mothers from households in neither program. Children from households participating in WIC and SNAP also consumed soda more frequently than children in either program. Few differences in intake were observed for mothers or children participating in only WIC or SNAP vs both programs or neither program. Households participating in both WIC and SNAP may benefit from additional policy and programmatic interventions to limit sugar-sweetened beverage intake and reduce spending on bottled water.

Related Research

March 2024

Associations of Increased WIC Benefits for Fruits and Vegetables With Food Security and Satisfaction by Race and Ethnicity

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides nutrition support for racially and ethnically diverse populations. In 2021, the monthly cash value benefit (CVB) for the purchase of fruits and vegetables increased from $9 to $35 and was later adjusted to $24. This study investigated, by racial and ethnic groups, whether More

January 2024

WIC Fruit and Vegetable Study

The Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition was funded by Healthy Eating Research to conduct a study exploring how the policy changes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) cash value benefit (CVB), or fruit and vegetable money, during the pandemic impacted the WIC program and child access to fruits and More

November 2023

Supporting the Wake Forest School of Medicine in implementing a WIC referral program within electronic health records to optimize WIC participation

The United States has an ongoing maternal and infant health crisis, characterized by stark disparities. The WIC program could equitably improve health outcomes, but it is underutilized. Identifying strategies for healthcare systems to efficiently connect pregnant patients with WIC is a public health and policy priority. This study will use the electronic health record (EHR) More