Research & Publications | Healthy Eating Research

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Restaurant kids’ meal beverage offerings before and after implementation of healthy default beverage policy statewide in California compared with citywide in Wilmington, Delaware

In 2019, California and Wilmington, Delaware implemented policies requiring healthier default beverages with restaurant kids’ meals. The current study assessed restaurant beverage offerings and manager perceptions. Pre-implementation, the most common kids’ meal beverages on California menus were unflavored milk and water (78·8 %, 52·0 %); in Wilmington, juice, milk and sugar-sweetened beverages were most common More

Date: April 2021

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Retail

Using Online Food Retail ‘Nudges’ to Promote Healthier Beverage Intake among Low-Income Children

This study seeks to develop and test the impact of “nudges” in an online grocery store on purchases of fruit drinks and healthier substitutes among a sample of low-income parents of children ages 1-5 years. The goal of this project is to reduce fruit drink intake among low-income children, including those whose parents participate in More

Date: April 2021

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Focus Areas: Beverages Early Childhood Food Retail

Changes in Beverage Availability and Targeted Marketing Associated with the Philadelphia Beverage Tax

The goal of this study is to provide much needed scientific evidence about whether the Philadelphia beverage tax is associate with changes in beverage availability and targeted marketing, with a focus on drinks commonly consumed by children ages 0-5 and Black and Latinx households with young children. Specific aims include: (1) Compare changes in retail More

Date: April 2021

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Focus Areas: Beverages Early Childhood Food Marketing Food Retail

Healthy default beverage policies for kids’ meals: A statewide baseline assessment of restaurant managers’ perceptions and knowledge in Delaware

This study evaluated restaurant managers’ knowledge and support of a healthy default beverage policy in Delaware that had passed, but not yet gone into effect. We conducted structured in-person interviews with managers (n = 50) from full-service and quick-service chain and non-chain restaurants (QSRs) using a stratified random sample. Managers were interviewed about the number More

Date: December 2020

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Retail

Assessing the Implementation of Kids’ Meals Healthy Default Beverage Policies in the State of California and City of Wilmington, Del.

Healthy default beverage (HDB) policies are one policy approach to limiting kids’ sugary drink consumption and encouraging healthier beverage consumption. These policies specifically require restaurants to offer only healthier drinks (e.g., water, milk, 100% juice) instead of sugary drinks as the default options with kids’ meals, a combination of food and drink items sold as More

Date: August 2020

Resource Type: Research Brief

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Retail

Voluntary Kids’ Meal Beverage Standards: Are They Sufficient to Ensure Healthier Restaurant Practices and Consumer Choices?

Many quick-service restaurants (QSRs) instituted voluntary kids’ meal default beverage standards (standards) between 2013 to 2017. Little is known about impacts of standards on QSR drive-through practices and on customer choices. This study assessed differences in restaurant practices including kids’ meal beverages shown on menu boards, offered by cashiers, and selected by customers in QSRs More

Keywords: Fast food, Water

Date: July 2020

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Retail

Evaluating the Policy Impact of Healthy Default Beverages in Children’s Meals: Cross-state Comparison

Beginning January 2019 in California and Wilmington, Delaware, all restaurants selling children’s meals that include a beverage must provide healthy default options (unsweetened water and milk in California; water, milk or 100% juice in Delaware). In December 2018, baseline data on children’s meal beverage options were collected from a sample of fast food restaurants in More

Date: August 2019

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Retail

Parents’ Reports of Fast-Food Purchases for Their Children: Have They Improved?

Few research studies have examined the menu items that parents purchase for their children at fast-food restaurants or their attitudes about healthier kids’ meals. The purpose of this research was to document specific menu items that parents reported purchasing for their children at the top fast-food restaurant chains, attitudes about the restaurants, frequency of fast-food More

Date: September 2018

Resource Type: Report

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Access Food Retail

Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Providing Caloric Information: How Black Adolescents Alter Their Purchases and Whether the Effects Persist

This paper examines the ways in which adolescents altered the type and size of their purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in response to an intervention in six corner stores located in lower-income, predominately black neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. Researchers used one of four randomly posted signs with caloric information about a 20 ounce SSB: 1) More

Date: October 2014

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Retail

Reduction in Purchases of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Low-Income, Black Adolescents After Exposure to Caloric Information

This paper examines the effect of an intervention to provide caloric information about sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the number of SSBs purchased by Black adolescents. The intervention randomly assigned urban corner stores in Baltimore City, Maryland to the following calorie information conditions which were posted on the beverage cases: 1) absolute caloric count, 2) percentage More

Date: February 2012

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Retail