Research & Publications | Healthy Eating Research

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Evaluating Healthy Vending Policies for Youth in Four Cities

Vending machines are a common source for low nutrient, energy-dense snacks and beverages and youth can easily access vending machines at many public spaces such as parks, recreation centers, and swimming pools. Many cities are beginning to adopt healthy vending policies in public areas, but evidence regarding best practices for developing, implementing, and evaluating these healthy More

Date: July 2018

Resource Type: Report

Focus Areas: Beverages Food Access

Investigating How to Align Schools’ Marketing Environments With Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

The goal of this study was to determine how to improve school marketing environments so that they align with new federal competitive food standards. The research team assessed the food marketing environments in three schools in Portland, Maine, using the food and beverage marketing in schools (FMBS) survey, and provided schools with technical assistance to More

Date: March 2017

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Food Marketing School & After School

School Fundraisers: Positive Changes in Foods Sold, but Room for Improvement Remains

This brief reviews the evidence on food-related fundraising in schools and changes to the school food environment over the past decade, providing new data from the Bridging the Gap (BTG) research program’s 2013-14 school year national survey data. In-school fundraisers can be problematic nutritionally because, historically, unhealthy foods such as baked goods, candies, and sugary More

Date: March 2016

Resource Type: Research Brief

Focus Areas: Nutrition Policy & Programs School & After School

Investigating How to Align Schools’ Marketing Policies with Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

Little is known about school-based digital marketing and how to help schools comply with model policies given new competitive food standards. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) assess the different forms of digital food and beverage marketing that may occur in school settings; 2) assess whether school marketing environments in Portland, Maine, More

Date: February 2014

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Focus Areas: Food Marketing School & After School

Using a Bid Database to Study the Nutritional Quality of Competitive Foods in Schools and Establish a Baseline for Evaluating New USDA Guidelines

The U.S. Department of Agriculture recently proposed new standards for snack (competitive) foods in schools, similar to the Competitive Foods Guidelines developed by the Alliance for a Healthier Generation. This project will objectively track changes in snack food purchasing among K-12 public schools as a result ofthese standards. The aims of this work are to More

Date: September 2013

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Focus Areas: School & After School

Examining Contracts and Agreements Between Small-Scale Food Retailers and the Food Industry

Small retail food stores are ubiquitous in lower-income, urban settings, and are a major food source among lower-income racial and ethnic minority children and adolescents. Little is known about the types of agreements (e.g., slotting fees, retail promotional programs, exclusive contracts) that small retail food stores may have with manufacturers and distributors of high-sugar, high-fat More

Date: July 2013

Resource Type: Commissioned Research Project Summary

Focus Areas: Food Access Food Marketing Food Retail

Encouraging Consumption of Water in School and Child Care Settings: Access, Challenges, and Strategies for Improvement

Children and adolescents are not consuming enough water. Since children spend most of their day in school and child care settings, ensuring that safe, potable water is available in these settings is essential. This article identifies challenges that limit access to drinking water, including deteriorating drinking water infrastructure, limited drinking water availability, insufficient federal meal More

Date: August 2011

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Beverages Early Childhood Food Marketing School & After School

Examining the Effects of School Drinking-Water Policies and Practices on Student Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in California

Few U.S. studies have investigated school drinking water access and policies and practices related to school drinking water. This project will investigate drinking water availability, policies and practices, and barriers to implementing programs and policies to improve drinking water access and intake in California public schools. If pending California state legislation to improve drinking water More

Date: November 2010

Resource Type: Grant Summary

Focus Areas: Beverages School & After School

School Food Environments and Practices Affect Dietary Behaviors of U.S. Public School Children

Using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, this study estimates the effects of school food environments on children’s consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods and fruits and vegetables in school. The national study involved more than 2,300 children in 287 schools. Results demonstrated that sugar-sweetened beverages consumed at school contributed an More

Date: February 2009

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: Beverages School & After School

School Food Environments and Policies in U.S. Public Schools

Based on 2005 data, this study found that 97% of high schools and 82% of middle schools had vending machines, compared with 17% of elementary schools. In addition, 93% of high schools and 92% of middle schools sold food and beverages a la carte, and nearly 80% of these schools offered unhealthy a la carte More

Date: July 2008

Resource Type: Journal Article

Focus Areas: School & After School